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Table 1 Patients' demographic data and preoperative condition. Data are presented for all 84 patients that were included in the study, and separately for those patients receiving clonidine and those without oral clonidine premedication. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, median (25th–75th percentile), or n = (%).

From: Factors influencing preoperative stress response in coronary artery bypass graft patients

  All patients Patients with clonidine morning premedication Patients without clonidine morning premedication
  n = 84 n = 42 n = 42
Age (years) 66 ± 9 65 ± 9 67 ± 8
Bodyweight (kg) 82 ± 10 82 ± 11 82 ± 10
Height (cm) 173 ± 6 173 ± 6 173 ± 5
BMI (kg · m-2) 27.3 ± 3.1 27.3 ± 3.2 27.4 ± 3.0
EF (%) 62 ± 14 61 ± 13 63 ± 16
Affected vessels (n = / %)    
n = 1 3 (4%) 0 (0%) 3 (7%)
n = 2 16 (19%) 9 (21%) 7 (17%)
n = 3 64 (76%) 33 (79%) 31 (74%)
n = 4 1 (1%) 0 (0%) 1 (2%)
Pre-treated with (n= / %)    
ace-inhibitors 43 (51%) 17 (40%) 26 (62%)
Beta-blockers 55 (65%) 26 (62%) 29 (69%)
Calcium-antagonists 12 (14%) 5 (12%) 7 (17%)
Clonidine dose (n= / %)    
75 μg   8 (19%)  
150 μg n/a 33 (79%) n/a
300 μg   1 (2%)  
Time from morning premedication
until observational period (hours)
1.0 (0.5–4.5) 2.5 (0.5–5.0) 1.0 (0.5–4.5)
Heart rate [bpm] 66 ± 11 66 ± 10 66 ± 12
Mean arterial blood pressure [mmHg] 102 ± 16 100 ± 15 104 ± 17
Pressure rate product [mmHg·bpm] 6750 ± 1640 6660 ± 1600 6850 ± 1690
Plasma norepinephrine level (nmol·l-1) 1.00 ± 0.82 0.75 ± 0.48 1.26 ± 1.00