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Table 4 Comparison of ECG indicators in the four groups

From: Effects of dexmedetomidine on cardiac electrophysiology in patients undergoing general anesthesia during perioperative period: a randomized controlled trial

   GroupD1 (n = 16) GroupD2 (n = 18) GroupD3 (n = 18) GroupC (n = 17) Pa Pb Pc Pd Pe Pf
PR (ms) T1 147.4 ± 17.5 154.7 ± 15.6 149.2 ± 17.9 149.9 ± 17.9 0.223 0.763 0.678 0.342 0.415 0.903
T2 170.6 ± 12.0 171.4 ± 14.5 158.0 ± 19.6 149.6 ± 19.2 0.878 0.032 0.001 0.019  < 0.001 0.141
T6 164.6 ± 18.5 163.7 ± 13.4 161.4 ± 21.3 157.7 ± 20.3 0.888 0.621 0.290 0.715 0.343 0.555
T7 161.6 ± 18.6 165.9 ± 17.4 162.1 ± 23.2 156.4 ± 18.1 0.515 0.942 0.446 0.552 0.151 0.390
T8 154.9 ± 13.5 150.0 ± 16.1 152.7 ± 19.9 157.9 ± 16.3 0.393 0.701 0.608 0.627 0.165 0.359
T9 147.1 ± 18.9 150.0 ± 13.9 143.8 ± 21.1 155.1 ± 19.5 0.646 0.614 0.220 0.322 0.423 0.078
T10 146.1 ± 17.1 148.2 ± 14.1 141.6 ± 15.7 150.9 ± 19.5 0.707 0.439 0.403 0.238 0.631 0.102
T11 145.8 ± 16.6 148.7 ± 15.6 145.6 ± 17.1 150.9 ± 17.3 0.619 0.964 0.385 0.577 0.695 0.348
PT1-2  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.007  > 0.99       
PT1-6  < 0.001 0.153 0.007 0.523       
PT1-7 0.009 0.059 0.014  > 0.99       
PT1-8 0.801  > 0.99  > 0.99 0.465       
PT1-9  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT1-10  > 0.99 0.052 0.008  > 0.99       
PT1-11  > 0.99 0.696  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT2-6  > 0.99 0.160  > 0.99 0.134       
PT2-7 0.219  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT2-8  < 0.001  < 0.001  > 0.99 0.364       
PT2-9  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  > 0.99       
PT2-10  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  > 0.99       
PT2-11  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.004  > 0.99       
QRS (ms) T1 88.5 ± 7.9 88.6 ± 10.5 86.2 ± 9.8 84.0 ± 9.4 0.973 0.477 0.179 0.973 0.443 0.156
T2 89.3 ± 10.6 87.7 ± 10.9 87.5 ± 12.1 84.2 ± 8.4 0.666 0.634 0.175 0.963 0.335 0.359
T6 88.9 ± 9.7 87.3 ± 8.9 84.7 ± 10.7 84.5 ± 8.4 0.632 0.216 0.196 0.432 0.395 0.940
T7 90.3 ± 9.6 88.7 ± 9.0 85.4 ± 9.5 85.1 ± 7.2 0.617 0.128 0.113 0.288 0.257 0.931
T8 90.1 ± 10.5 88.4 ± 11.8 86.2 ± 9.2 85.4 ± 8.6 0.973 0.476 0.353 0.484 0.356 0.814
T9 87.6 ± 7.7 87.7 ± 10.3 84.5 ± 9.2 84.6 ± 8.1 0.989 0.313 0.333 0.292 0.313 0.977
T10 87.3 ± 8.5 87.7 ± 9.8 82.7 ± 7.9 86.6 ± 7.7 0.891 0.127 0.826 0.088 0.714 0.184
T11 87.2 ± 6.6 85.9 ± 8.7 84.9 ± 9.8 85.8 ± 8.5 0.673 0.437 0.634 0.712 0.951 0.763
PT1-2  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT1-6  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT1-7  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT1-8  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT1-9  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT1-10  > 0.99  > 0.99 0.830  > 0.99       
PT1-11  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT2-6  > 0.99  > 0.99 0.247  > 0.99       
PT2-7  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT2-8  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT2-9  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT2-10  > 0.99  > 0.99 0.061  > 0.99       
PT2-11  > 0.99 0.804  > 0.99  > 0.99       
QTc (ms) T1 413.8 ± 11.1 414.4 ± 12.2 416.2 ± 14.7 409.2 ± 15.5 0.882 0.605 0.341 0.703 0.259 0.134
T2 427.0 ± 11.7 425.2 ± 12.6 408.1 ± 17.3 410.0 ± 14.9 0.719  < 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.690
T6 429.9 ± 9.5 423.8 ± 10.1 419.6 ± 21.0 424.5 ± 14.3 0.228 0.044 0.292 0.389 0.888 0.323
T7 428.7 ± 11.0 419.1 ± 13.9 413.3 ± 15.3 422.2 ± 9.0 0.031 0.001 0.148 0.171 0.468 0.040
T8 419.2 ± 9.2 419.0 ± 13.4 413.0 ± 14.7 422.8 ± 10.6 0.965 0.147 0.398 0.148 0.361 0.021
T9 418.0 ± 12.5 411.2 ± 16.2 405.7 ± 14.8 411.4 ± 13.9 0.174 0.016 0.192 0.258 0.970 0.250
T10 413.8 ± 8.8 410.1 ± 12.7 404.0 ± 12.9 410.2 ± 15.0 0.397 0.027 0.419 0.151 0.977 0.149
T11 408.1 ± 15.0 411.3 ± 13.3 412.1 ± 17.7 407.4 ± 16.5 0.554 0.457 0.897 0.874 0.464 0.375
PT1-2  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.039  > 0.99       
PT1-6  < 0.001 0.023  > 0.99  < 0.001       
PT1-7  < 0.001  > 0.99  > 0.99 0.002       
PT1-8  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99 0.004       
PT1-9  > 0.99  > 0.99 0.068  > 0.99       
PT1-10  > 0.99  > 0.99 0.005  > 0.99       
PT1-11  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT2-6  > 0.99  > 0.99 0.001  < 0.001       
PT2-7  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99 0.014       
PT2-8  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99 0.025       
PT2-9 0.727 0.010  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT2-10 0.019 0.001  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT2-11 0.001 0.019  > 0.99  > 0.99       
Tp-e (ms) T1 84.3 ± 13.2 81.7 ± 8.0 79.6 ± 8.8 82.5 ± 10.3 0.462 0.183 0.629 0.535 0.803 0.390
T2 87.3 ± 14.7 82.1 ± 6.9 82.2 ± 7.7 81.9 ± 10.5 0.149 0.158 0.141 0.974 0.961 0.936
T6 85.5 ± 9.6 83.8 ± 8.7 82.2 ± 9.1 85.9 ± 9.5 0.588 0.296 0.906 0.602 0.502 0.237
T7 85.9 ± 8.7 83.4 ± 8.7 79.7 ± 8.0 84.2 ± 7.3 0.380 0.032 0.567 0.183 0.761 0.108
T8 91.9 ± 11.0 87.4 ± 8.9 75.4 ± 10.0 82.5 ± 8.4 0.179  < 0.001 0.007  < 0.001 0.140 0.032
T9 87.1 ± 11.2 85.3 ± 9.7 76.6 ± 8.8 81.2 ± 7.0 0.578 0.002 0.076 0.007 0.203 0.146
T10 83.1 ± 10.8 82.6 ± 5.9 77.5 ± 7.5 81.9 ± 7.2 0.853 0.056 0.671 0.061 0.803 0.108
T11 81.9 ± 9.2 78.9 ± 8.8 81.8 ± 10.1 80.5 ± 8.2 0.344 0.975 0.673 0.345 0.596 0.687
PT1-2  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT1-6  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT1-7  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT1-8 0.160 0.733  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT1-9  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT1-10  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT1-11  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT2-6  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT2-7  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT2-8  > 0.99  > 0.99 0.222  > 0.99       
PT2-9  > 0.99  > 0.99 0.666  > 0.99       
PT2-10  > 0.99  > 0.99 0.358  > 0.99       
PT2-11 0.115  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
iCEB T1 4.40 ± 0.48 4.51 ± 0.62 4.69 ± 0.69 4.70 ± 0.58 0.599 0.172 0.164 0.383 0.365 0.964
T2 4.85 ± 0.67 4.96 ± 0.69 4.83 ± 0.85 4.70 ± 0.57 0.666 0.936 0.537 0.598 0.284 0.579
T6 4.92 ± 0.62 4.97 ± 0.55 5.13 ± 0.64 5.22 ± 0.55 0.807 0.312 0.149 0.428 0.214 0.641
T7 4.81 ± 0.53 4.82 ± 0.51 4.96 ± 0.60 5.04 ± 0.38 0.962 0.426 0.219 0.440 0.223 0.643
T8 4.75 ± 0.54 4.87 ± 0.68 4.48 ± 0.61 4.93 ± 0.46 0.980 0.047 0.807 0.043 0.782 0.024
T9 4.59 ± 0.50 4.70 ± 0.64 4.58 ± 0.62 4.78 ± 0.59 0.587 0.983 0.364 0.560 0.701 0.339
T10 4.47 ± 0.54 4.51 ± 0.53 4.73 ± 0.57 4.48 ± 0.44 0.819 0.160 0.988 0.224 0.829 0.158
T11 4.57 ± 0.39 4.69 ± 0.51 4.69 ± 0.60 4.60 ± 0.49 0.503 0.499 0.866 0.995 0.611 0.607
PT1-2  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.876  > 0.99       
PT1-6  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001       
PT1-7 0.001 0.022 0.095 0.011       
PT1-8  < 0.001 0.010 0.968 0.624       
PT1-9 0.989  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT1-10  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99 0.875       
PT1-11  > 0.99 0.849  > 0.99  > 0.99       
PT2-6  > 0.99  > 0.99 0.038  < 0.001       
PT2-7  > 0.99  > 0.99  > 0.99 0.044       
PT2-8  > 0.99  > 0.99 0.031 0.947       
PT2-9 0.317 0.253 0.319  > 0.99       
PT2-10 0.008 0.001  > 0.99 0.647       
PT2-11 0.331 0.304  > 0.99  > 0.99       
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SD
  2. ECG Electrocardiogram, QTc Corrected QT, Tp-e Interval between the peak and the end of the electrocardiographic T wave, iCEB index of cardiac electrophysiological balance, T1 before infusion of dexmedetomidine, T2 dexmedetomidine loading dose finish, T6 surgery ending, T7 1 h after transferring to PACU, T8 24 h postoperatively, T9 48 h postoperatively, T10 72 h postoperatively, T11 1 month postoperatively
  3. PT1-2, PT1-6, PT1-7, PT1-8, PT1-9, PT1-10, PT1-11 for comparisons between T1 and T2, T6, T7 T8, T9, T10, T11; PT2-6, PT2-7, PT2-8, PT2-9, PT2-10, PT2-11 for comparisons between T2 and T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11; Pa, Pb, Pc, Pd, Pe and Pf for comparisons between groups D1 and D2, groups D1 and D3, groups D1 and C, groups D2 and D3, groups D2 and C, and groups D3 and C, respectively