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Table 1 Patient and preoperative characteristics

From: The Pericapsular Nerve Group (PENG) block combined with Local Infiltration Analgesia (LIA) compared to placebo and LIA in hip arthroplasty surgery: a multi-center double-blinded randomized-controlled trial

  Sham (n = 30) PENG (n = 30) P-value
Age in years, mean (± SD)a 68.3 (± 10.9) 68.6 (± 9.5) 0.91
Gender, n (%)b
  Male 14 (47) 13 (43) 0.80
  Female 16 (53) 17 (57)  
Weight in kg, mean (± SD)a 84.8 (± 20.8) 88.6 (± 21.9) 0.51
BMI in kg/m2, median (IQR)c 30.8 (27.5–32.8) 33.2 (28.3–36.7) 0.09
Mobility, n (%)b
  Independent (no aids) 16 (53) 10 (33) 0.13
  Assisted (stick/walker/ wheelchair) 14 (47) 20 (67)
Residence, n (%)d
  Home 30 (100) 29 (97) 1.00
  Assisted living 0 (0) 1 (3)
ASA score, n (%)b
  I 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.14
  II 19 (63) 13 (43)
  III 10 (33) 17 (57)
  IV 1 (3) 0 (0)
History of anxiety and/or depression, n (%)d    
  Yes 7 (23) 3 (10) 0.30
  No 23 (77) 27 (90)
Chronic pain, n (%)d
  Yes 30 (100) 28 (93) 0.49
  No 0 (0) 2 (7)
Preoperative pain score (NRS), n (%)b
  None (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.44
  Mild (1–4) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  Moderate (5–7) 7 (23) 3 (10)
  Severe (8–10) 23 (77) 27 (90)
Preoperative pain score (NRS), median (IQR)c 8 (7.8–10) 9 (8–10) 0.20
Preoperative Pain Catastrophising Scale Score median (IQR)c 14.5 (6.75–38) 17 (6–41) 0.72
Preoperative PROMIS Depression T Score, median (IQR)c 52.3 (37.1–61.2) 53.3 (37.1–62) 0.88
Preoperative PROMIS Anxiety T Score, median (IQR)c 49.4 (37.1–58.4) 47.7 (37.1–60.7) 0.74
Chronic opiate use, n (%)d
  Yes 7 (23) 9 (30) 0.56
  No 23 (77) 21 (70)
Gabapentinoid use preoperatively, n (%)d
  Yes 3 (10) 3 (10) 1.00
  No 27 (90) 27 (90)
Operative side, n (%)b
  Left 14 (47) 14 (47) 1.00
  Right 16 (53) 16 (53)
Surgical procedure, n (%)d
  Non-cemented total 9 (30) 8 (27) 0.77
  Cemented total 21 (70) 22 (73)
Surgical approach, n (%)b
  Direct anterior 15 (50) 18 (60) 0.44
  Posterior 15 (50) 12 (40)
Type of anaesthesia for surgery, n (%)d
  General 1 (3) 1 (3) 1.00
  Spinal 29 (97) 29 (97)
  1. Abbreviations: IQR Interquartile range, SD Standard deviation, PENG Pericapsular nerve group block, NRS Numeric rating scale, PROMIS Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System
  2. a Student’s t-test used
  3. b Chi2 test used
  4. c Mann–Whitney U-test used
  5. d Fisher’s exact test used