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Table 2 Surgery and anesthesia data; pain score, rescue analgesics and PONV in the PACU

From: Patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with opioids after thoracoscopic lung surgery: a randomized clinical trial

Characteristics Oxycodone group (n = 184) Hydromorphone group (n = 186) Sufentanil group (n = 184) P value
Type of surgery, no. (%)     0.693
Lobectomy 85(46.2) 83(44.6) 75(40.8)  
Segmentectomy 47(25.5) 55(29.6) 59(32.1)  
Wedge resection 52(28.3) 48(25.8) 50(27.2)  
Single-port thoracoscopy, no. (%) 59(32.1) 53(28.5) 60(32.6) 0.649
Malignant lesion, no. (%) 131(71.2) 144(77.4) 144(78.3) 0.226
Duration of surgery, min, median (IQR) 91(64,122) 88(70,114) 90(70,117) 0.878
Anesthesia maintenance, no. (%)     0.554
 Volatile anesthetics 152(82.6) 152(81.7) 150(81.5)  
 Propofol 13(7.1) 21(11.3) 17(9.2)  
 Volatile anesthetics combined with propofol 19(10.3) 13(7.0) 17(9.2)  
Dose of sufentanil, μg/kg, median (IQR) 0.5(0.4,0.6) 0.5(0.4,0.6) 0.5(0.5,0.6) 0.029
Dose of remifentanil, μg/kg/min, median (IQR) 0.1(0.1,0.2) 0.1(0.1,0.2) 0.1(0.1,0.2) 0.457
NSAIDs, no. (%) 165(90.7) 166(89.7) 174(95.1) 0.136
Antiemetic, no. (%)     
 Tropisetron 173(94.0) 169(90.9) 167(91.3) 0.474
 Methylprednisolone 167(90.8) 164(88.2) 159(86.4) 0.423
 Dexamethasone 1(0.5) 5(2.7) 2(1.1) 0.291
Intercostal nerve block, no. (%) 149(81.0) 148(79.6) 139(75.5) 0.417
Total fluid, mL/kg/h, median (IQR) 2.9(2.2,3.9) 3.1(2.3,3.9) 3.1(2.2,3.9) 0.777
Pain score in PACU, median (IQR) 1(0,2) 1(0,2) 1(0,2) 0.752
Rescue analgesics in PACU, no. (%) 5(2.7) 5(2.7) 7(3.8) 0.778
PONV in PACU, no. (%)     0.850
 0 183(99.5) 185(99.5) 183(99.5)  
 1 1(0.5) 0 1(0.5)  
 2 0 0 0  
 3 0 1(0.5) 0  
 4 0 0 0  
  1. Data are presented as the median (IQR) or number (%)
  2. Abbreviations: IQR interquartile range, NSAIDS non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, PACU Post-anesthesia care unit, PONV postoperative nausea and vomiting