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Table 3 Sex- and age-adjusted analysis to examine the association of postoperative complications and patient characteristics

From: The effects of preoperative alcohol, tobacco, and psychological stress on postoperative complications: a prospective observational study

  Postoperative complications M-W U/x2 test   
  No (642) Yes (79) p value OR (95% CI) p value
BMI (kg/m2) 23 (21–25) 23 (21–25) 0.91 0.96 (0.89–1.03) 0.26
ASA-PS I 202 10 0.002* II/I 1.89 (0.93–4.15) 0.077
ASA-PS II 417 66 III/I 1.37 (0.28–5.18) 0.67
ASA-PS III 23 3 III/II 0.73 (0.17–2.21) 0.61
Preoperative use of psychotropics 74/615 (12%) 11/78 (14%) 0.58 0.95 (0.47–1.93) 0.89
Anesthesia time (minutes. Hours in OR) 169 (127–234) 298 (210–389) p < 0.001* 1.53 (1.37–1.73) p < 0.001*
sAs 8 (7–9) 7 (6–8) 0.001* 0.82 (0.70–0.97) 0.019*
Drinking (lifetime) 460/632 (73%) 54/78 (69%) 0.51 0.79 (0.46–1.41) 0.42
No drinking habit (the preceding year) 249/632 (39%) 30/78 (38%) 0.87 0.99 (0.58–1.69) 0.98
Unchanged drinking habit 146/376 (39%) 13/47 (28%) 0.14 0.74 (0.34–1.53) 0.42
Improved drinking habit 230/376 (61%) 34/47 (72%) 0.14 0.74 (0.69–2.20) 0.47
AUDIT score 1 (0–5) 2 (0–8) 0.13 1.23 (0.97–1.07) 0.45
AUDIT score of 8 or more 93/596 (16%) 18/77 (23%) 0.084 1.48 (0.77–2.76) 0.24
Smoking (lifetime) 225/616 (37%) 38/77 (49%) 0.029* 1.39 (0.80–2.39) 0.24
No smoking habit (the preceding year) 492/616 (80%) 57/77 (74%) 0.23 0.68 (0.38–1.27) 0.22
Unchanged smoking habit 38/122 (31%) 3/18 (17%) 0.34 0.79 (0.18–2.46) 0.71
Improved smoking habit 84/122 (69%) 15/18 (83%) 0.34 1.48 (0.74–2.83) 0.26
FTND score 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0.44 1.10 (0.96–1.25) 0.15
FTND score of 3 or more 80/611 (13%) 12/75 (16%) 0.49 0.79 (0.40–1.68) 0.53
K6 score 3 (1–6) 4 (1–6) 0.55 1.07 (1.00–113) 0.040*
K6 score of 8 or more 94/615 (15%) 14/79 (18%) 0.57 1.51 (0.77–2.80) 0.22
HADS score 8 (4–13) 8 (5–14) 0.96 1.02 (0.98–1.06) 0.24
HADS score of 20 or more 33/611 (5.5%) 7/79 (8.9%) 0.22 1.97 (0.76–4.52) 0.15
Length of stay after surgery 8 (5–12) 21 (12–38) p < 0.001*   
  1. Categorical variables are shown as proportion (%), and continuous variables are shown as median (interquartile range)
  2. M-W U Mann–Whitney U test; x2 test chi-squared test; OR odds ratio; CI confidence interval; BMI body mass index; ASA-PS the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification; sAs Surgical Apgar score; AUDIT Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; FTND Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; K6 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale; HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
  3. *p < 0.05