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Table 2 Association of PACU-OpResc with primary and secondary endpoints

From: Evaluation of early postoperative intravenous opioid rescue as a novel quality measure in patients who receive thoracic epidural analgesia: a retrospective cohort analysis and prospective performance improvement intervention

Outcomes No PACU-OpResc
(n = 743)
PACU-OpResc
(n = 211)
Unadjusted analysis Adjusted analysis
OR/IRR (95% CI) p-value OR/IRR (95% CI) p-value
Primary Outcome
 PACU length of stay, min 269 (194, 381) 286 (221, 427) 1.21 (1.08, 1.35) 0.001 1.20 (1.07, 1.34) 0.001
Secondary Outcomes
 PACU discharge delay
  Any reason, n (%) 283 (38.09%) 128 (60.66%) 2.51 (1.83, 3.43) <  0.001 2.57 (1.83, 3.60) <  0.001
  Pain, n (%) 90 (12.11%) 87 (41.23%) 5.09 (3.58, 7.24) <  0.001 5.15 (3.51, 7.57) <  0.001
  Cardiovascular, n (%) 125 (16.82%) 42 (19.91%) 1.23 (0.83, 1.81) 0.299 1.34 (0.88, 2.04) 0.175
  PONV, n (%) 5 (0.67%) 3 (1.42%) 2.13 (0.50, 8.98) 0.304 1.76 (0.34, 8.96) 0.498
  Sedation/Respiratory, n (%) 65 (8.75%) 22 (10.43%) 1.21 (0.73, 2.02) 0.455 1.01 (0.57, 1.80) 0.978
  Voiding, n (%) 51 (6.86%) 23 (10.90%) 1.66 (0.99, 2.79) 0.055 1.63 (0.93, 2.85) 0.085
 Hypotension MAP < 65 mmHg
  Frequency, n (%) 710 (95.56%) 201 (95.26%) 0.93 (0.45, 1.93) 0.854 1.04 (0.47, 2.31) 0.924
  Duration, min 16 (6, 32) 14 (6, 28) 0.84 (0.71, 1.00) 0.048 0.96 (0.82, 1.12) 0.587
 Hypotension MAP < 55 mmHg
  Frequency, n (%) 485 (65.28%) 128 (60.66%) 0.82 (0.60, 1.12) 0.218 0.90 (0.64, 1.26) 0.531
  Duration, min 2 (0, 5) 1 (0, 5) 0.85 (0.66, 1.08) 0.184 0.94 (0.74, 1.21) 0.651
  1. Data are expressed as frequency (prevalence in %) or median (interquartile range (25th–75th percentile), values separated by comma). Statistical analyses were performed using negative binomial regression (PACU length of stay, duration of hypotension) or multivariable logistic regression (all other analyses). Odds ratios (OR) are reported for logistic regression analyses, incidence rate ratios (IRR) for negative binomial regression analyses
  2. MAP Mean Arterial Pressure; PACU Post Anesthesia Care Unit; PACU-OpResc intravenous opioid rescue analgesia in the postanesthesia care unit; PONV Post-Operative Nausea and vomiting