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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Landmark-guided versus modified ultrasound-assisted Paramedian techniques in combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for elderly patients with hip fractures: a randomized controlled trial

  Landmark-guided group
n = 40
Ultrasound-assisted group
n = 40
P-value
Age (y) 82.3 ± 7.1 83.3 ± 6.7 0.549
Height (cm) 156.7 ± 7.0 156.9 ± 7.2 0.925
Weight (kg) 50.6 ± 8.4 53.2 ± 10.1 0.203
BMI (kg/m2) 20.6 ± 3.0 21.6 ± 3.6 0.176
Sex (male/female) 7/33 10/30 0.412
ASA Classification 0.502
 I 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
 II 22 (55%) 19 (47.5%)  
 III 18 (45%) 21 (52.5%)  
Degree of back curvature 0.635a
 Backward 4 (10%) 2 (5%)  
 None 33 (82.5%) 36 (90%)  
 Forward 3 (7.5%) 2 (5%)  
Scoliosis 1.000
 Positive 6 (15%) 6 (15%)  
 Negative 34 (85%) 34 (85%)  
Ease of landmark palpation 0.654a
 Easy 34 (85%) 31 (77.5%)  
 Moderate 5 (12.5%) 7 (17.5%)  
 Difficult 1 (2.5%) 2 (5%)  
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD or n (%)
  2. Abbreviations: BMI Body mass index, SD Standard deviation, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists
  3. aFisher’s exact test