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Table 1 Patient demographics of groups E and Ca

From: Pain management after ambulatory surgery: a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blinded parallel controlled trial comparing nalbuphine and tramadol

  Group E Group C P
Subjects, n 209 228  
Gender, n (%)
 Male 52 (25.0) 48 (21.1) 0.340
 Female 156 (75.0) 179 (78.9)  
Age, y 40.66 ± 12.04 40.67 ± 11.81 0.994
BMI, kg/m2 23.15 ± 2.84 23.20 ± 2.87 0.847
Respiration, rpm 17.09 ± 1.81 17.04 ± 2.18 0.808
Heart rate, bpm 74.45 ± 8.43 74.48 ± 9.75 0.978
Heart rhythm, n (%)
 Normal 207 (99.0) 225 (99.1) 1.000
 Abnormal 2 (1.0) 2 (0.9)  
SBP, mmHg 121.63 ± 16.26 122.64 ± 16.01 0.513
DBP, mmHg 74.92 ± 9.48 74.63 ± 8.80 0.738
MAP, mmHg 92.91 ± 11.65 93.17 ± 10.84 0.806
  1. aGroup E was treated with nalbuphine hydrochloride diluted with saline to 1 mg/L. Group C was administered tramadol hydrochloride diluted with saline to 10 mg/L.