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Table 3 Main results. Endothelial Glycocalyx (EG), NIRS-derived (NIRS) and FMD-derived (FMD) variables, before surgery (T0), 1–3 h after arrival in PACU (T1) and 24 h after surgery (T2); data as Mean ± SD; analysis by 2-way ANOVA for repeated measures and Tukey-Kramer multi comparison test

From: Intravenous lidocaine to prevent endothelial dysfunction after major abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled pilot trial

  PLACEBO GROUPLIDOCAINE GROUPP value for difference between groupsP value for difference between timesP value for interaction
T0T1T2T0T1T2
EGSyndecan (pg/ml)2896 ± 25583452 ± 2656***3999 ± 3453**$2115 ± 20072770 ± 2898**3169 ± 2906*** $0.179<0.0010.454
NIRSStO2 - Baseline (%)69.2 ± 3.170.7 ± 7.566.4 ± 5.1**68.1 ± 5.870.1 ± 4.968.0 ± 5.0**0.9390.0460.374
StO2 - Ischemic slope (%/sec)−0.165 ± 0.049−0.147 ± 0.063*−0.141 ± 0.041−0.163 ± 0.042− 0.145 ± 0.050*−0.156 ± 0.0380.5510.0210.464
StO2 - Reperfusion slope (%/sec)1.990 ± 0.4491.672 ± 0.5851.843 ± 0.5252.030 ± 0.3181.868 ± 0.3971.986 ± 0.4780.1890.3900.579
FMDBaseline vascular diameter before occlusion (mm)4.049 ± 0.6844.367 ± 0.6924.276 ± 0.6054.223 ± 0.8084.428 ± 0.7444.610 ± 0.7190.5280.0020.803
Post-ischaemic diameter increase: FMDmax (%)6.1 ± 3.93.6 ± 3.73.8 ± 4.76.9 ± 5.84.9 ± 6.76.6 ± 6.70.2400.3820.123
AUCShearRate until FMDmax (arbitrary units)21,512.6 ± 11,143.021,140.7 ± 13,084.516,527.8 ± 8734.716,270.9 ± 8397.218,588.7 ± 11,874.116,473.5 ± 8865.40.7190.2260.377
  1. Inside each group: *** T0 vs T1 and T0 vs T2 p < 0.001; ** T1 vs T2 p < 0.02; * T0 vs T1 p < 0.05; $ T1 vs T2 p < 0.01