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Table 2 Perioperative clinical outcomes

From: Intraoperative dexmedetomidine attenuates norepinephrine levels in patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

ParametersControl (n = 23)Dexmedetomidine (n = 23)Pa
value
Stress hormone level at baseline (T1)
 Norepinephrine (pg/mL)153.3 [125–183.6]172.3 [142.8–195.2]0.249
 Epinephrine (pg/mL)10 [10–21.7]10.6 [10–25.6]0.395
 Glucose (mg/dL)102 [93–119]97 [84–108]0.124
Stress hormone level at the end of infusion (T2)
 Norepinephrine (pg/mL)102.5 [78.9–143.8]52.2 [41.2–71.6]< 0.001
 Epinephrine (pg/mL)35.9 [24.9–43.3]43.9 [36.1–83.1]0.066
 Glucose (mg/dL)128 [112–140]147 [125–161]0.030
Propofol dose (mg/kg/h)7.0 [6.3–7.7]6.8 [6.3–7.2]0.668
Remifentanil dose (mcg/kg/h)4.4 [3.4–5.4]4.5 [3.6–6.3]0.267
Lowest BIS value during maintenance40 [40–41]40 [36–40]0.088
Highest BIS value during maintenance50 [47–53]48 [44–52]0.136
Intraoperative hypotension, n6 (26.1%)9 (39.1%)0.530
Intraoperative bradycardia, n1 (4.3%)9 (39.1%)0.010
Postoperative nausea or vomiting at PACU, n4 (17.4%)1 (4.3%)0.346
Pain score at PACU (NRS, 0–10)2 [1–3]2 [1–2]0.188
Number of patients requiring rescue analgesics at PACU, n7 (30.4%)1 (4.3%)0.047
GCS score at PACU15 [15–15]15 [15–15]> 0.999
Duration of recovery at PACU (minutes)60 ± 1064 ± 90.308
  1. Values are mean ± standard deviation, median [interquartile ranges] or number (percentages). aThe P value for the t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and the Fisher’s exact test is set at 0.05. BIS Bispectral index, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, PACU Post-anesthesia care unit