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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Intravenous dexmedetomidine versus tramadol for treatment of shivering after spinal anesthesia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Author DateDosageStudy typeJadad ScoreSample size D/TPatient characteristics; Surgical settingType of anesthesia; Drug for anesthesiaDefinition of shiveringOutcomesmeasures
Kundra
2017
Dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg, tramadol 0.5 mg/kgRCT550/5018–65 yr, ASA: I-II;
Orthopedic, general, or urological surgery
Spinal anesthesia; 0.5% bupivacaineGrade 3 or 4
Venkatraman 2016Dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg, tramadol 1 mg/kgRCT530/3018–70 yr, ASA: I-II;
No mention
Spinal anesthesia; To achieve sensory level of at least T10Grades 2 to 4
Mittal 2014Dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg; tramadol 0.5 mg/kgRCT425/2518–65 yr, ASA: I-II;
Lower abdominal, lower limb, orthopaedic and plastic surgeries
Spinal anesthesia; 0.5% heavy bupivacaine 15 mg.Grade 3 or 4
Fern 2015Dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg; tramadol 0.5 mg/kgRCT320/2018–70 yr, ASA: I-II; Elective orthopaedic, gynaecology or general surgeryCombined spinal and epidural anesthesia; 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mg.Grade 3 or 4
Keerthi 2017Dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg; tramadol 0.5 mg/kgRCT432 /3218–60 yr, ASA: I-II; Lower abdomen and lower limb surgerySpinal anesthesia; 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 2.8 to 3 mlGrades 2 to 4
Ramesh 2019Dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg; tramadol 0.5 mg/kgRCT330/3018–65 yr, ASA: I-II; Elective lower limb surgerySpinal anesthesia; 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 12.5 mgGrade 3 for at least 2 min
Verma 2018Dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg; tramadol 0.5 mg/kgRCT460/6018–65 yr, ASA: I-II; Elective lower limb, lower abdominal, gynaecological procedures, caesarean sectionsSpinal anesthesia; No mentionGrade 3 or 4
Prasad 2018Dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg; tramadol 0.5 mg/kgRCT525/2518–40 yr, ASA: I-II; Caesarean sectionSpinal anesthesia; 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaineGrade 3 or 4
Kumar 2016Dexmedetomidine 0.6 μg/kg; tramadol 1.0 mg/kgRCT320/2018–60 yr, ASA: I-II; Elective lower abdominal surgeries and lower limb surgeriesSpinal anesthesia; 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mgGrade 3
Verma 2016Dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg; tramadol 2 mg/kgRCT430/3018–45 yr, ASA: I-II; Elective abdominal, gynecological and orthopedic surgeriesSpinal anesthesia; 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mgGrades 2 to 4
Singla 2017Dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg; tramadol 0.5 mg/kgRCT450/5018–65 yr, ASA: I-II; Various surgeries under spinal anesthesiaSpinal anesthesia; 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 3–3.6 mlGrades 2 to 4
Singh 2016Dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg; tramadol 0.5 mg/kgRCT430/3020–50 yr, ASA: I-II; Elective lower abdominal, lower limb orthopaedic and gynaecological surgeriesSpinal anesthesia; 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mgGrade 3
Aasim 2016Dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg; tramadol 0.5 mg/kgRCT530/3018–65 yr, ASA: I-II; Various surgeries under spinal anesthesiaSpinal anesthesia; 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mgGrade 3
  1. RCT randomized controlled trial, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists. : Effective rate of shivering treatment, : Time to cease shivering, : recurrent rate of shivering, : the incidence of nausea, : the incidence of vomiting, : the incidence of bradycardia, : the incidence of hypotension, : sedation score