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Table 3 Changes in measured variables in the elbow flexor compartment, gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis muscles

From: Human limb skeletal muscle wasting and architectural remodeling during five to ten days intubation and ventilation in critical care – an observational study using ultrasound

  Day 1 (n = 22) Day 5 (n = 16) Day 10 (n = 9) P-value
MT – Elbow flexor compartment, [cm]
(median ± IQR)
3.20 ± 0.58 3.30 ± 0.87 2.98 ± 0.83 0.62
MT – Gastrocnemius, [cm]
(median ± IQR)
1.29 ± 0.60 1.34 ± 0.43 1.14 ± 0.65 0.72
MT – Vastus lateralis [cm] (median ± IQR) 1.53 ± 0.77 1.40 ± 0.46 1.18 ± 0.36 0.002*
FL – Gastrocnemius [cm]
(median ± IQR)
3.99 ± 1.84 3.69 ± 1.37 3.43 ± 2.12 0.90
FL – Vastus lateralis [cm]
(median ± IQR)
8.1 ± 3.06 8.45 ± 4.55 7.85 ± 5.89 0.89
PA – Gastrocnemius [degrees] (median ± IQR) 20.93 ± 6.41 19.82 ± 5.65 17.5 ± 3.91 0.37
PA – Vastus lateralis [degrees] (median ± IQR) 11.09 ± 4.88 9.86 ± 3.69 8.03 ± 3.86 0.018*
  1. MT Muscle thickness, FL Fascicle length, PA Pennation angle
  2. Significance tested with Friedman’s test, followed by pairwise Friedman’s tests where p < 0.05. Stastically significant p-values have been marked with *. Muscle thickness and pennation angle of the vastus lateralis muscle significantly decreased over both 5 and 10 days