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Table 2 Non-dynamic parameters. Reduction in non-dynamic power, flow and pressure, both during spontaneous breathing and NPPV

From: Cardiac power parameters during hypovolemia, induced by the lower body negative pressure technique, in healthy volunteers

Power parameters, non-dynamic
  PWRmax (Watt) PWR-integral (Joule) CPO (Watt)
  Spontaneous breathing NPPV Spontaneous breathing NPPV Spontaneous breathing NPPV
  Mean (sd) Change Mean (sd) Change Mean (sd) Change Mean (sd) Change Mean (sd) Change Mean (sd) Change
Baseline 13.6 (2.8)   13.3 (2.4)   1.03 (0.14)   1.01 (0.16)   0.92 (0.23)   0.95 (0.21)  
20 mmHg 13.3 (3.2)   **11.8 (3.1) −11 % **0.96 (0.17) −6.9 % **0.84 (0.19) −17 % 0.89 (0.23)   **0.81 (0.20) −15 %
40 mmHg **11.6 (3.2) −15 % **10.2 (3.5) −23 % **0.77 (0.19) −25 % **0.66 (0.20) −34 % **0.73 (0.22) −21 % **0.73 (0.25) −23 %
60 mmHg **9.9 (2.8) −27 % **8.8 (3.3) −34 % **0.69 (0.19) −41 % **0.51 (0.19) −50 % **0.71 (0.21) −23 % **0.64 (0.27) −33 %
80 mmHg **7.4 (1.9) −46 % **6.7 (3.0) −50 % **0.42 (0.13) −59 % **0.32 (0.11) −68 % **0.57 (0.15) −38 % **0.48 (0.18) −49 %
Flow parameters, non-dynamic
  Aorta maxflow (m/s) Stroke volume (ml) CO (L/min)
  Spontaneous breathing NPPV Spontaneous breathing NPPV Spontaneous breathing NPPV
  Mean (sd) Change Mean (sd) Change Mean (sd) Change Mean (sd) Change Mean (sd) Change Mean (sd) Change
Baseline 0.88 (0.12)   0.85 (0.15)   83.0 (10.6)   77.9 (13.4)   4.91 (1.08)   **4.85 (1.33)  
20 mmHg 0.85 (0.15)   *0.78 (0.16) −8.2 % *77.3 (12.1) −6.9 % **67.6 (16.4) −13 % 4.74 (1.2)   **4.26 (0..99) −12 %
40 mmHg **0.76 (0.18) −14 % **0.66 (0.21) −22 % **63.0 (15.3) −24 % **52.3 (17.6) −33 % **3.93 (1.11) −20 % **3.64 (1.28) −25 %
60 mmHg **0.67 (0.17) −24 % **0.62 (0.18) −27 % **50.7 (14.1) −39 % **44.2 (13.7) −43 % **3.74 (1.08) −24 % **3.48 (1.33) −28 %
80 mmHg **0.55 (0.14) −38 % **0.53 (0.14) −38 % **37.0 (15.5) −55 % **30.4 (11.9) −61 % **3.13 (1.06) −36 % **2.89 (1.01) −40 %
Pressure parameters, non-dynamic
  Systolic pressure (mmHg) Pulse pressure (mmHg) MAP (mmHg)
  Spontaneous breathing NPPV Spontaneous breathing NPPV Spontaneous breathing NPPV
  Mean (sd) Change Mean (sd) Change Mean (sd) Change Mean (sd) Change Mean (sd) Change Mean (sd) Change
Baseline 118 (12.2)   123 (17.3)   59.2 (11.4)   61.5 (10.8)   75.7 (10.1)   80.2 (16.1)  
20 mmHg 119 (16.2)   121 (22.2)   59.9 (16.5)   59.7 (15.4)   76.0 (11.7)   78.0 (18.2)  
40 mmHg 120 (15.6)   124 (21.6)   58.8 (15.8)   *56.1 (18.3) −9 % 76.3 (11.7)   82.1 (18.7)  
60 mmHg 115 (13.4)   *114 (27.0) −7.3 % **50 (11.7) −16 % **50.2 (19.3) −18 % 77.9 (12.3)   76.8 (21.4)  
80 mmHg **108 (−12.6) −8.4 % **98 (27.7) −20 % **44.2 (10.7) −25 % **40.3 (18.1) −34 % 76.5 (13.0)   **69.7 (22.8) −13.1 %
  1. *Significant to a level of p < 0.05
  2. **Significant to a level of p < 0.001