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General pharmacology and pharmacokinetics

Section edited by Jun Lin

This section considers studies on the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of anesthetic and analgesic compounds, as well as other more laboratory focused and experimental studies.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) seriously reduces quality of life and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The causes and neuropathogenesis of POCD remain largely unknown. Resveratr...

    Authors: Bei Wang, Shengjin Ge, Wanxia Xiong and Zhanggang Xue

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:141

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  2. Content type: Research article

    With the increasing occurrence of drug shortages, understanding the pharmacokinetics of alternative intrathecal opioid administration has gained importance. In particular, additional data are needed to compreh...

    Authors: Vikas O’Reilly-Shah and Grant C Lynde

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:140

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Propofol is an excellent hypnotic drug for use in repeated radiation procedures in young children. To date, tolerance to propofol generally does not develop in pediatric patients undergoing radiation therapy. ...

    Authors: RyungA Kang, Byung Seop Shin, Young Hee Shin, Nam-Su Gil, Ye Na Oh and Ji Seon Jeong

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:125

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Several hypnotic drugs have been previously identified as modulators of food intake, but exact mechanisms remain unknown. Feeding behavior implicates several neuronal populations in the hypothalamic arcuate nu...

    Authors: E. Besnier, T. Clavier, M. C. Tonon, G. Pelletier, B. Dureuil, H. Castel and V. Compère

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:96

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Although the status of women in anesthesiology has advanced by many measures, obtaining career development funding remains challenging. Here, we sought to compare the characteristics of funded career developme...

    Authors: Lena M. Mayes, Cynthia A. Wong, Shanta Zimmer, Ana Fernandez-Bustamante and Karsten Bartels

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:95

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Ketogenic diet (KD) and exogenous ketone supplements can evoke sustained ketosis, which may modulate sleep and sleep-like effects. However, no studies have been published examining the effect of ketosis on the...

    Authors: Csilla Ari, Zsolt Kovács, Cem Murdun, Andrew P. Koutnik, Craig R. Goldhagen, Christopher Rogers, David Diamond and Dominic P. D’Agostino

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:85

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Inhalation of sevoflurane can induce neuronal apoptosis, cognitive impairment and abnormal behaviors. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can secret neurotrophic factors and cytokines to protect from oxi...

    Authors: Yanyong Cheng, Yunfeng Jiang, Lei Zhang, Jiayi Wang, Dongdong Chai, Rong Hu, Chunzhu Li, Yu Sun and Hong Jiang

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:84

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Ketamine and hyperoxia are widely used in obstetric and pediatric settings. Either ketamine or hyperoxia has been reported to cause neuroapoptosis in the developing brain, and ketamine-induced neuronal apoptos...

    Authors: Changyi Wu, Jun Wang, Xiangyang Guo and Ying Zhang

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:52

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Intra-articular local anaesthetics are widely used for providing postoperative analgesia and decreasing the need for opioids. Procaine has proven positive effects in carpal tunnel syndrome and chondromalacia p...

    Authors: Aysun Ankay Yilbas, Basak Akca, Berkem Buyukakkus, Elham Bahador Zirh, Dilara Zeybek, Filiz Uzumcugil and Fatma Saricaoglu

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:51

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  10. Content type: Research article

    There is increasing interest in whether anesthetic agents affect the risk or progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To mitigate many of the methodological issues encountered in human retrospective cohort stu...

    Authors: Adele Woodhouse, Carmen Maria Fernandez-Martos, Rachel Alice Kathryn Atkinson, Kelsey Anne Hanson, Jessica Marie Collins, Aidan Ryan O’Mara, Nico Terblanche, Marcus Welby Skinner, James Clement Vickers and Anna Elizabeth King

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:47

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  11. Content type: Research article

    The aim of the present study was to verify whether propofol impaired learning and memory through the interplay of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tyrosine kin...

    Authors: Junfei Zhou, Fang Wang, Jun Zhang, Jianfeng Li, Li Ma, Tieli Dong and Zhigang Zhuang

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:35

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Spinal cord ischemic injury remains a serious complication of open surgical and endovascular aortic procedures. Simvastatin has been reported to be associated with neuroprotective effect after spinal cord isch...

    Authors: Jung-Hee Ryu, Jin-woo Park, Jin-Young Hwang, Seong-Joo Park, Jin-Hee Kim, Hye-Min Sohn and Sung Hee Han

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:31

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  13. Content type: Research article

    There may be great individual variability in the hemodynamic effects of this dexmedetomidine. For this reason, the dose must be carefully adjusted to achieve the desired clinical effect. Whether a loading dose...

    Authors: Yuan Han, Liu Han, Mengmeng Dong, Qingchun Sun, Ke Ding, Zhenfeng Zhang, Junli Cao and Yueying Zhang

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:12

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  14. Content type: Research article

    About 2% of pregnant women receive non-obstetric surgery under general anesthesia each year. During pregnancy, general anesthetics may affect brain development of the fetus. This study aimed to investigate saf...

    Authors: Wei Huang, Yunxia Dong, Guangyi Zhao, Yuan Wang, Jingjing Jiang and Ping Zhao

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:5

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a critical pathophysiological change of ischemic stroke. Heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a rate-limiting enzyme of eliminating excessive free heme by combining with hemopexin (HPX), a ...

    Authors: Beibei Dong, Zhishen Zhang, Keliang Xie, Yongyan Yang, Yuan Shi, Chenxu Wang and Yonghao Yu

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:2

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Previous studies have shown that cyclooxygenase-2, a key enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, is involved in anxiety and cognitive processes, but few studies have investigated the effects o...

    Authors: Bo Wang, Xin Jin, Xin Kuang and Shaowen Tian

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2017 17:152

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Studies have found that propofol can inhibit endotoxin-induced monocyte-macrophages to produce various inflammatory factors. This study is to disclose whether the propofol affects the expression of high-mobili...

    Authors: Jie Jia, Yijuan Sun, Zurong Hu, Yi Li and Xiangcai Ruan

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2017 17:148

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  18. Content type: Research article

    The effectiveness of a combination of a lipid emulsion with epinephrine in reversing local anesthetic-induced cardiac arrest has been confirmed. The combination of a lipid emulsion with levosimendan, was shown...

    Authors: Fubei Nan, Xixi Cai, Yingchao Ye, Xuzhong Xu, Zhengqian Li, Min Li and Limei Chen

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2017 17:128

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis and cognitive impairment has been previously reported. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been shown to be a neuromodulator that is thought to have anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and...

    Authors: Xueyuan Hu, Li Luan, Wei Guan, Shuai Zhang, Bei Li, Wei Ji and Honggang Fan

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2017 17:123

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  20. Content type: Research article

    There are growing concerns that anaesthetic exposure can cause extensive apoptotic degeneration of neurons and the impairment of normal synaptic development and remodelling. However, little attention has been ...

    Authors: Haiyun Guo, Zhengwu Peng, Liu Yang, Xue Liu, Yaning Xie, Yanhui Cai, Lize Xiong and Yi Zeng

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2017 17:124

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Ketamine is a frequently used intravenous anesthetic, which can reversibly induce loss of consciousness (LOC). Previous studies have demonstrated that thalamocortical system is critical for information transmi...

    Authors: Bao Fu, Chengxi Liu, Yajun Zhang, Xiaoyun Fu, Lin Zhang and Tian Yu

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2017 17:111

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Administration of arginine vasopressin (AVP) is associated with reducing jugular venous (SjvO2) and regional cerebral (rScO2) oxygen saturation under propofol-remifentanil (P/R) anaesthesia. We determined whether...

    Authors: Eun-A Jang, Ji-A Song, Ji Youn Shin, Jae Joon Yoon, Kyung Yeon Yoo and Seongtae Jeong

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2017 17:73

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Mivacurium is the shortest acting nondepolarizing muscle relaxant currently available; however, the effect of different dosages and injection times of intravenous mivacurium administration in children of diffe...

    Authors: Ruifeng Zeng, Xiulan Liu, Jing Zhang, Ning Yin, Jian Fei, Shan Zhong, Zhiyong Hu, Miaofeng Hu, Mazhong Zhang, Bo Li, Jun Li, Qingquan Lian and Wangning ShangGuan

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2017 17:58

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  24. Content type: Research article

    A moderate insufflation pressure and deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) have been recommended in laparoscopic surgery in consideration of the possible reduction in splanchnic perfusion due to the CO2-pneumoperiton...

    Authors: Yang Liu, Wen Cao, Yu Liu, Yun Wang, Ren Lang, Yun Yue and An-Shi Wu

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2017 17:45

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Perioperative cerebral ischemia/hypoxia could induce hippocampal injury and has been reported to induce cognitive impairment. In this study, we used cobalt chloride (CoCl2) to build a hypoxia model in mouse hippo...

    Authors: Yan Lu, Wei Chen, Chen Lin, Jiaqiang Wang, Minmin Zhu, Jiawei Chen and Changhong Miao

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2017 17:32

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Remifentanil induced hyperalgesia (RIH) is characterized by stimulation evoked pain including allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia after remifentanil infusion. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor was reported t...

    Authors: Jiehao Sun, Hai Lin, Guodong He, Wendong Lin and Jianping Yang

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2017 17:30

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Levosimendan exerted favorable effects on the initial outcome in the treatment of ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest. This study investigated the efficacy of levosimendan in the treatment of asphyxia-indu...

    Authors: Bingjing Wu, Yong G. Peng, Shishi Zhao, Nana Bao, Linmin Pan, Jiaojiao Dong, Xuzhong Xu and Quanguang Wang

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2017 17:18

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Remifentanil has been reported to cause post-anesthetic shivering (PAS). Higher doses of remifentanil reportedly induce more intense PAS. Tramadol, a synthetic opioid that acts at multiple sites, is considered...

    Authors: Taku Nakagawa, Miki Hashimoto, Yasunori Hashimoto, Kazuhiro Shirozu and Sumio Hoka

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2017 17:1

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Lidocaine is an approved local anesthetic and Class 1B antiarrhythmic with a number of ancillary properties. Our aim was to investigate lidocaine’s vasoreactivity properties in intact versus denuded rat thorac...

    Authors: Aryadi Arsyad and Geoffrey P. Dobson

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2016 16:121

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  30. Content type: Research article

    The local anesthetic lidocaine can affect intra- and extra-cellular signaling pathways in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells, resulting in long-term modulation of biological functions, including cell growth ...

    Authors: Akihisa Okamoto, Masahiro Tanaka, Chisato Sumi, Kanako Oku, Munenori Kusunoki, Kenichiro Nishi, Yoshiyuki Matsuo, Keizo Takenaga, Koh Shingu and Kiichi Hirota

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2016 16:104

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  31. Content type: Research article

    It has been observed that patients with liver dysfunction need lower dose anesthetic compared patients with normal liver function. The minimum amount of volatile anesthetic to achieve an optimal depth of anest...

    Authors: Yan Yin, Hong Xiao, Jirimutuya Han, Weiyi Zhang, Jianguo Cheng and Tao Zhu

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2016 16:98

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Clonidine effectively decreases perioperative mortality by reducing sympathetic tone. However, application of clonidine might also restrict anaemia tolerance due to impairment of compensatory mechanisms. There...

    Authors: Patrick Lauscher, Harry Kertscho, Malte Krömker, Barbara Haberichter, Kai Zacharowski, Peter Rosenberger and Jens Meier

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2016 16:93

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Activation of NMDA receptors play an important role in the development of remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia. We hypothesized that in addition to ketamine, intrathecal MgSO4 could also relieve thermal and mechanic...

    Authors: Jiehao Sun, Hai Lin, Xiaona Feng, Jiaojiao Dong, Emmanuel Ansong and Xuzhong Xu

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2016 16:74

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  34. Content type: Research article

    We conducted a prospective, randomized, multicenter study to evaluate the differences in the blocking effect of different doses of rocuronium between sevoflurane- or propofol-remifentanil anesthesia in an Asia...

    Authors: Sangseok Lee, Young Jin Ro, Won Uk Koh, Tomoki Nishiyama and Hong-seuk Yang

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2016 16:65

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase α-isoform (PI3K-C2α) is involved in regulating KCl-induced vascular smooth muscle contraction. The current study was to investigate the effects of sevoflurane (SEVO) and isof...

    Authors: Shaozhong Yang, Qi Wu, Shanshan Huang, Zi Wang and Feng Qi

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2016 16:63

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Ramosetron is a relatively new 5-hydroxytryptamine three receptor antagonist with higher binding affinity and more prolonged duration of action compared to ondansetron. The present study was performed to evalu...

    Authors: Tae Kyong Kim, Youn Joung Cho, Chae-won Lim, Jeong Jin Min, Eue-Keun Choi, Deok Man Hong and Yunseok Jeon

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2016 16:56

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Ketamine is a commonly used clinical anesthetic and a popular recreational drug. However, with the exception of studies about the nervous system, studies about the effect of early ketamine exposure on embryos ...

    Authors: Ran Guo, Guangjian Liu, Min Du, Yu Shi, Pu Jiang, Xiaoli Liu, Lan Liu, Jianxia Liu and Ying Xu

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2016 16:23

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Temozolomide (TMZ) induces a G2/M cell cycle arrest and is used for treatment of paediatric tumours, especially neuroblastomas. Patients treated with TMZ frequently receive midazolam for sedation prior to surg...

    Authors: Sebastian Braun, Inge Bauer, Benedikt Pannen and Robert Werdehausen

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2015 15:151

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Epinephrine is a first-line drug for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but its efficacy in the treatment of bupivacaine-induced cardiac toxicity is still in question. We hypothesized that epinephrine can reverse ...

    Authors: Fuli Liu, Bingjing Wu, Yongjun Du, Yiquan Wu, Hongfei Chen, Fangfang Xia, Zhousheng Jin and Xuzhong Xu

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2015 15:66

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  40. Content type: Research article

    JM-1232(-) is a novel anesthetic agent which acts through gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. Cerebral pial vascular effects of JM-1232(-) are unknown. We thus evaluated topical and intravenous effects of JM-12...

    Authors: Kodai Ikemoto, Tadahiko Ishiyama, Noriyuki Shintani, Nobumasa Asano, Daniel I Sessler and Takashi Matsukawa

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2015 15:37

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  41. Content type: Research article

    In this study, the individual and combined inhibitory effects of dexmedetomidine and lidocaine on the conduction group of isolated nerve were investigated by determining conduction velocity distribution (CVD) ...

    Authors: Nizamettin Dalkilic, Seckin Tuncer and Ilksen Burat

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2015 15:24

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Dexmedetomidine (DMT), a highly selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist, has been used safely as a sedative in patients under regional anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to determine the 50% effective dose (ED50

    Authors: Jeongmin Kim, Won Oak Kim, Hye-Bin Kim and Hae Keum Kil

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2015 15:17

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Mild hypothermia may be frequently induced due to cool environments in the operating room. The study analyzed patient recovery time and response to sugammadex after a prolonged rocuronium-induced deep neuromus...

    Authors: Hee Jong Lee, Kyo Sang Kim, Ji Seon Jeong, Kyu Nam Kim and Byeong Chan Lee

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2015 15:7

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Even extremely high-doses of the potent opioid, sufentanil, cannot reliably suppress stress responses to intense surgical stimuli such as sternotomy. The chemically related opioid remifentanil with its differe...

    Authors: Ingo Bergmann, Torsten Szabanowski, Anselm Bräuer, Thomas A Crozier, Martin Bauer and José Maria Hinz

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2015 15:3

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Pharmacokinetic estimates for intravenous paracetamol in individual adult cohorts are different to a certain extent, and understanding the covariates of these differences may guide dose individualization. In o...

    Authors: Karel Allegaert, Klaus T Olkkola, Katie H Owens, Marc Van de Velde, Monique M de Maat and Brian J Anderson

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2014 14:77

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