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General pharmacology and pharmacokinetics

Section edited by Jun Lin

This section considers studies on the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of anesthetic and analgesic compounds, as well as other more laboratory focused and experimental studies.

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  1. Retrospective analysis and pre-clinical studies suggest that local anesthetics have anti-tumoral effects. However, the association between cancer recurrence and the use of local anesthesia is inconclusive and ...

    Authors: Guanhua Zhu, Ling Zhang, Jiapeng Dan and Qiong Zhu

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2020 20:126

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The α2-adrenergic agonist dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a sedative and can be used as an adjunct to hypnotics. The study sought to evaluate the effects of different doses of DEX on the requirements for propofol for lo...

    Authors: Yang Gu, Fan Yang, Yonghai Zhang, Junwei Zheng, Jie Wang, Bin Li, Tao Ma, Xiang Cui, Kaimei Lu and Hanxiang Ma

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2020 20:96

    Content type: Research article

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  3. G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30) was proved the specific estrogen receptor relating to mechanical hyperalgesia. Studies have shown that the GABAA receptor subunits α4, β1, and δ in the periaqueducta...

    Authors: Ming Jiang, Yu’e Sun, Yishan Lei, Fan Hu, Zhengrong Xia, Yue Liu, Zhengliang Ma and Xiaoping Gu

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2020 20:93

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Sevoflurane preconditioning improves brain function in MCAO rats, and there are several methods for determining appropriate concentration and time windows for preconditioning. This study investigated the brain...

    Authors: Ying Deng, Chengmei Shi, Yi Gu, Ning Yang, Mao Xu, Ting Xu and Xiangyang Guo

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2020 20:78

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Substantial clinical and preclinical evidence have indicated the association between amide-linked local anesthesia and the long-term outcomes of cancer patients. However, the potential effects of local anesthe...

    Authors: Qinghong Zheng, Xiaohong Peng and Yaqin Zhang

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2020 20:43

    Content type: Research article

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  6. A CO2 pneumoperitoneum during a laparoscopic procedure causes violent hemodynamic changes. However, the remifentanil required to inhibit the cardiovascular response to a CO2 pneumoperitoneum combined with propofo...

    Authors: Chengwei Yang, Yuanyuan Feng, Sheng Wang, Mingming Han, Song Wang, Fang Kang, Xiang Huang and Juan Li

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2020 20:35

    Content type: Research article

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  7. It has been demonstrated that administration of exogenous ketone supplement ketone salt (KS) and ketone ester (KE) increased blood ketone level and delayed the onset of isoflurane-induced anesthesia in differe...

    Authors: Zsolt Kovács, Brigitta Brunner, Dominic P. D’Agostino and Csilla Ari

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2020 20:30

    Content type: Research article

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  8. This study was designed to examine whether severe aortic regurgitation will affect the pharmacodynamics (PD) and pharmacokinetics (PK) of cisatracurium during anesthetic induction.

    Authors: Xiaocong Huang, Lei Chen, Yujing Cai, Jinfeng Wei, Lina Lin, Jie Sun, Xuemei Peng and Sheng Wang

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2020 20:21

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Older people are currently the fastest growing segment of the worldwide population. The present study aimed to estimate propofol dose in older patients based on size descriptors measured by bioelectrical imped...

    Authors: Ana M. Araújo, Humberto S. Machado, Amílcar C. Falcão and Patrício Soares-da-Silva

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2019 19:180

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Using a minimum dose of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) to achieve intubation condition is one of the goals in anaesthesia management of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) for thoracoscopic (VATS) thymectomy. H...

    Authors: Shoujun Fei, Hengfu Xia, Xiaowei Chen, Dazhi Pang and Xuebing Xu

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2019 19:170

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The monitoring of regional cerebral oxygen saturation (SrO2) using near-infrared spectroscopy is useful method to detect cerebral ischemia during. Sevoflurane and propofol decrease cerebral metabolic rate (CMRO2)...

    Authors: Sanghee Park, Keunbae Yook, Kyung Yeon Yoo, Jeong Il Choi, Hong-Beom Bae, Youngwook You, Baoyuan Jin and Seongtae Jeong

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2019 19:157

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The levels of tight junction proteins (TJs), especially occludin, correlate with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption caused by inflammation in central nervous system (CNS). It has been reported that propofol,...

    Authors: Yue Zhang, Xiaowei Ding, Changhong Miao and Jiawei Chen

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2019 19:127

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Rocuronium bromide (RB) is known to cause vascular pain. Although there have been a few reports that diluted administration causes less vascular pain, there have been no studies investigating diluted administr...

    Authors: Mayuko Kanazawa, Aiji Sato (Boku), Yoko Okumura, Mayumi Hashimoto, Naoko Tachi, Yushi Adachi and Masahiro Okuda

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2019 19:76

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Magnesium dose-dependently potentiates the effect of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. We investigated whether the potentiation of rocuronium-induced blockade by magnesium reduces the effect of s...

    Authors: Ákos I. Fábián, Vera Csernoch, Edömér Tassonyi, Marianna Fedor and Béla Fülesdi

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2019 19:64

    Content type: Research article

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  15. In adolescents limited data are available on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of propofol. In this study we derived a PK-PD model for propofol in adolescents undergoing idiopathic scoliosis ...

    Authors: Heleen J. Blussé van Oud-Alblas, Margreke J. E. Brill, Mariska Y. M. Peeters, Dick Tibboel, Meindert Danhof and Catherijne A. J. Knibbe

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2019 19:15

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a critical pathophysiological basis of cognitive dysfunction caused by ischemia stroke. Heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the elimination of excessive free h...

    Authors: Beibei Dong, Yongyan Yang, Zhishen Zhang, Keliang Xie, Lin Su and Yonghao Yu

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2019 19:13

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Although the neuroprotective role of propofol has been identified recently, the regulatory mechanism associated with microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) in neuronal cells remains to be poorly understood. We aimed to explo...

    Authors: Mingwei He, Haiyan Sun, Jinlei Pang, Xiangfei Guo, Yansong Huo, Xianhong Wu, Yaguang Liu and Jun Ma

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:197

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Laparoscopic surgery typically requires deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB), but whether deep or moderate NMB is superior for thoracoscopic surgery remains controversial.

    Authors: Xiao-feng Zhang, De-yuan Li, Jing-xiang Wu, Qi-liang Jiang, Hong-wei Zhu and Mei-ying Xu

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:195

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The calcium sensitizer levosimendan is increasingly used to improve hemodynamics in patients with acutely decompensated heart failure. By binding to cardiac troponin C the conformation of the calcium-troponin ...

    Authors: Frank Schuster, Stephan Johannsen, Susanne Isbary, Ismail Türkmeneli and Norbert Roewer

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:182

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Sevoflurane preconditioning induces brain ischemic tolerance, but the mechanism remains poorly elucidated. Nitration is an important form of post-translational modification in pathological signaling. This stud...

    Authors: Shiquan Wang, Yuheng Li, Jinlong Wei, Pei Li and Qianzi Yang

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:171

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The ratio of T helper 1 (Th1) to T helper 2 (Th2) as well as T helper 17 (Th17) to regulatory T cells (Treg) represents the state and direction of immune response. Recent studies demonstrated that dexmedetomid...

    Authors: Jae-Myeong Lee, Hyo-Jo Han, Won-Kyu Choi, Subin Yoo, Soojin Baek and Jaemin Lee

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:164

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The effects of the intravenous anesthetics propofol and etomidate on circulation are significantly different; however, their differing effects on miRNA expression in the cardiovascular system are not clearly u...

    Authors: Youxiu Yao, Ning Yang, Dengyang Han, Cheng Ni, Changyi Wu and Xiangyang Guo

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:149

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) seriously reduces quality of life and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The causes and neuropathogenesis of POCD remain largely unknown. Resveratr...

    Authors: Bei Wang, Shengjin Ge, Wanxia Xiong and Zhanggang Xue

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:141

    Content type: Research article

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  24. With the increasing occurrence of drug shortages, understanding the pharmacokinetics of alternative intrathecal opioid administration has gained importance. In particular, additional data are needed to compreh...

    Authors: Vikas O’Reilly-Shah and Grant C Lynde

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:140

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Propofol is an excellent hypnotic drug for use in repeated radiation procedures in young children. To date, tolerance to propofol generally does not develop in pediatric patients undergoing radiation therapy. ...

    Authors: RyungA Kang, Byung Seop Shin, Young Hee Shin, Nam-Su Gil, Ye Na Oh and Ji Seon Jeong

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:125

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Several hypnotic drugs have been previously identified as modulators of food intake, but exact mechanisms remain unknown. Feeding behavior implicates several neuronal populations in the hypothalamic arcuate nu...

    Authors: E. Besnier, T. Clavier, M. C. Tonon, G. Pelletier, B. Dureuil, H. Castel and V. Compère

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:96

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Although the status of women in anesthesiology has advanced by many measures, obtaining career development funding remains challenging. Here, we sought to compare the characteristics of funded career developme...

    Authors: Lena M. Mayes, Cynthia A. Wong, Shanta Zimmer, Ana Fernandez-Bustamante and Karsten Bartels

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:95

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Ketogenic diet (KD) and exogenous ketone supplements can evoke sustained ketosis, which may modulate sleep and sleep-like effects. However, no studies have been published examining the effect of ketosis on the...

    Authors: Csilla Ari, Zsolt Kovács, Cem Murdun, Andrew P. Koutnik, Craig R. Goldhagen, Christopher Rogers, David Diamond and Dominic P. D’Agostino

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:85

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Inhalation of sevoflurane can induce neuronal apoptosis, cognitive impairment and abnormal behaviors. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can secret neurotrophic factors and cytokines to protect from oxi...

    Authors: Yanyong Cheng, Yunfeng Jiang, Lei Zhang, Jiayi Wang, Dongdong Chai, Rong Hu, Chunzhu Li, Yu Sun and Hong Jiang

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:84

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Ketamine and hyperoxia are widely used in obstetric and pediatric settings. Either ketamine or hyperoxia has been reported to cause neuroapoptosis in the developing brain, and ketamine-induced neuronal apoptos...

    Authors: Changyi Wu, Jun Wang, Xiangyang Guo and Ying Zhang

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:52

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Intra-articular local anaesthetics are widely used for providing postoperative analgesia and decreasing the need for opioids. Procaine has proven positive effects in carpal tunnel syndrome and chondromalacia p...

    Authors: Aysun Ankay Yilbas, Basak Akca, Berkem Buyukakkus, Elham Bahador Zirh, Dilara Zeybek, Filiz Uzumcugil and Fatma Saricaoglu

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:51

    Content type: Research article

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  32. There is increasing interest in whether anesthetic agents affect the risk or progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To mitigate many of the methodological issues encountered in human retrospective cohort stu...

    Authors: Adele Woodhouse, Carmen Maria Fernandez-Martos, Rachel Alice Kathryn Atkinson, Kelsey Anne Hanson, Jessica Marie Collins, Aidan Ryan O’Mara, Nico Terblanche, Marcus Welby Skinner, James Clement Vickers and Anna Elizabeth King

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:47

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The aim of the present study was to verify whether propofol impaired learning and memory through the interplay of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tyrosine kin...

    Authors: Junfei Zhou, Fang Wang, Jun Zhang, Jianfeng Li, Li Ma, Tieli Dong and Zhigang Zhuang

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:35

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Spinal cord ischemic injury remains a serious complication of open surgical and endovascular aortic procedures. Simvastatin has been reported to be associated with neuroprotective effect after spinal cord isch...

    Authors: Jung-Hee Ryu, Jin-woo Park, Jin-Young Hwang, Seong-Joo Park, Jin-Hee Kim, Hye-Min Sohn and Sung Hee Han

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:31

    Content type: Research article

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  35. There may be great individual variability in the hemodynamic effects of this dexmedetomidine. For this reason, the dose must be carefully adjusted to achieve the desired clinical effect. Whether a loading dose...

    Authors: Yuan Han, Liu Han, Mengmeng Dong, Qingchun Sun, Ke Ding, Zhenfeng Zhang, Junli Cao and Yueying Zhang

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:12

    Content type: Research article

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  36. About 2% of pregnant women receive non-obstetric surgery under general anesthesia each year. During pregnancy, general anesthetics may affect brain development of the fetus. This study aimed to investigate saf...

    Authors: Wei Huang, Yunxia Dong, Guangyi Zhao, Yuan Wang, Jingjing Jiang and Ping Zhao

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:5

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a critical pathophysiological change of ischemic stroke. Heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a rate-limiting enzyme of eliminating excessive free heme by combining with hemopexin (HPX), a ...

    Authors: Beibei Dong, Zhishen Zhang, Keliang Xie, Yongyan Yang, Yuan Shi, Chenxu Wang and Yonghao Yu

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2018 18:2

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. Previous studies have shown that cyclooxygenase-2, a key enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, is involved in anxiety and cognitive processes, but few studies have investigated the effects o...

    Authors: Bo Wang, Xin Jin, Xin Kuang and Shaowen Tian

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2017 17:152

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Studies have found that propofol can inhibit endotoxin-induced monocyte-macrophages to produce various inflammatory factors. This study is to disclose whether the propofol affects the expression of high-mobili...

    Authors: Jie Jia, Yijuan Sun, Zurong Hu, Yi Li and Xiangcai Ruan

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2017 17:148

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The effectiveness of a combination of a lipid emulsion with epinephrine in reversing local anesthetic-induced cardiac arrest has been confirmed. The combination of a lipid emulsion with levosimendan, was shown...

    Authors: Fubei Nan, Xixi Cai, Yingchao Ye, Xuzhong Xu, Zhengqian Li, Min Li and Limei Chen

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2017 17:128

    Content type: Research article

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  41. There are growing concerns that anaesthetic exposure can cause extensive apoptotic degeneration of neurons and the impairment of normal synaptic development and remodelling. However, little attention has been ...

    Authors: Haiyun Guo, Zhengwu Peng, Liu Yang, Xue Liu, Yaning Xie, Yanhui Cai, Lize Xiong and Yi Zeng

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2017 17:124

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. Isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis and cognitive impairment has been previously reported. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been shown to be a neuromodulator that is thought to have anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and...

    Authors: Xueyuan Hu, Li Luan, Wei Guan, Shuai Zhang, Bei Li, Wei Ji and Honggang Fan

    Citation: BMC Anesthesiology 2017 17:123

    Content type: Research article

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