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Table 3 Comparison of postoperative outcomes in the intention-to-treat analysis

From: Patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with opioids after thoracoscopic lung surgery: a randomized clinical trial

Outcomes Oxycodone group (n = 184) Hydromorphone group (n = 186) Sufentanil group (n = 184) P value P value
O versus H/ O versus S/ H versus S
Primary outcome, SAME on cough, no. (%) 76(41.3) 75(40.3) 55(29.9) 0.043 1.000/0.071/0.114
 POD 1–3 Pain score < 4 on cough, no. (%) 79(42.9) 77(41.4) 56(30.4) 0.027 1.000/0.041/0.091
 POD 1–3 PONV score < 2, no. (%) 173(94.0) 168(90.3) 167(90.8) 0.372 n/a
 POD 1 SAME on cough, no. (%) 78(42.4) 76(40.9) 56(30.4) 0.036 1.000/0.055/0.117
 POD 2 SAME on cough, no. (%) 109(59.2) 107(57.5) 80(43.5) 0.004 1.000/0.007/0.020
 POD 3 SAME on cough, no. (%) 166(90.2) 161(86.6) 159(86.4) 0.451 n/a
Secondary outcomes
 SAME at rest, no. (%) 168(91.3) 162(87.1) 158(85.9) 0.240 n/a
 POD 1–3 Pain score < 4 at rest, no. (%) 177(96.2) 175(94.1) 173(94.0) 0.566 n/a
 POD 1 SAME at rest, no. (%) 168(91.3) 162(87.1) 158(85.9) 0.240 n/a
 POD 2 SAME at rest, no. (%) 182(98.9) 183(98.4) 181(98.4) 1.000 n/a
 POD 3 SAME at rest, no. (%) 183(99.5) 186(100.0) 184(100.0) 0.664 n/a
 Total dose of opioid in morphine equivalents, mg, median (IQR) 29.5(14.0,48.0) 25.0(12.8,45.3) 36.5(18.0,55.8) 0.006 0.734/0.134/0.004
 Dose of opioid of PCA in morphine equivalents, mg, median (IQR) 20.0(10.0,37.5) 20.0(10.0,28.0) 24.0(12.0,42.0) 0.009 0.416/0.342/0.007
 Rescue analgesics during POD 1–3, no. (%) 10(5.4) 11(5.9) 16(8.7) 0.400 n/a
 Patient satisfaction score on pain control, median (IQR) 97(93,100) 96(92,100) 97(92,100) 0.768 n/a
 QoR-15 score, median (IQR)
  POD 1 126(121,130) 126(120,130) 126(119,130) 0.561 n/a
  POD 2 133(130,136) 132(129,135) 132(129,135) 0.217 n/a
  POD 3 139(136,140) 138(136,140) 138(136,140) 0.718 n/a
Chest tube duration, days, median (IQR) 2(2,3) 2(2,4) 2(2,3) 0.094 n/a
Discharge time from hospital, days, median (IQR) 3(3,4) 4(3,5) 3.5(3,5) 0.041 0.043/0.227/1.000
 Other opioid-related adverse events, no. (%)
  Constipation 66(35.9) 57(30.6) 65(35.3) 0.506 n/a
  Dizziness 50(27.2) 45(24.2) 32(17.4) 0.073 n/a
  Pruritis 2(1.1) 3(1.6) 1(0.5) 0.875 n/a
  Urinary retention 6(3.3) 9(4.8) 10(5.4) 0.583 n/a
  Severe sedationa 0 0 0 n/a n/a
  Respiratory depression 0 0 0 n/a n/a
  PCA withdrawal due to adverse events 6(3.3) 11(5.9) 7(3.8) 0.416 n/a
  1. Data are presented as the median (IQR) or number (%)
  2. Abbreviations: IQR interquartile range, PCA patient-controlled analgesia, POD postoperative day, PONV postoperative nausea and vomiting, QoR-15 Quality of Recovery-15 questionnaire, SAME satisfactory analgesia with minimal emesis.
  3. adefined as Ramsay sedation scale score of 5–6