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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study subjects

From: Patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with opioids after thoracoscopic lung surgery: a randomized clinical trial

Characteristics Oxycodone group (n = 184) Hydromorphone group (n = 186) Sufentanil group (n = 184) P value
Men, no. (%) 74(40.2) 66(35.5) 58(31.5) 0.219
Age, yr, mean (SD) 53.1(10.6) 53.5(12.5) 51.6(12.6) 0.282
BMI, kg/m2, mean (SD) 22.93(2.89) 22.94(2.79) 22.71(2.87) 0.677
ASA physical status, no. (%)     0.379
 I 1(0.5) 1(0.5) 2(1.1)  
 II 171(92.9) 163(87.6) 163(88.6)  
 III 12(6.5) 22(11.8) 19(10.3)  
 IV-V 0 0 0  
Smoking status, no. (%)     0.295
 Never 145(78.8) 157(84.4) 155(84.2)  
 Former 36(19.6) 29(15.6) 27(14.7)  
 Current 3(1.6) 0(0.0) 2(1.1)  
Apfel risk factors for PONVa, no. (%)     0.218
 1 38(20.7) 24(12.9) 24(13.0)  
 2 38(20.7) 41(22.0) 37(20.1)  
 3 103(56.0) 111(59.7) 118(64.1)  
 4 5(2.7) 10(5.4) 5(2.7)  
History of chronic pain, no. (%) 9(4.9) 13(7.0) 20(10.9) 0.089
Hypertension, no. (%) 30(16.3) 27(14.5) 31(16.8) 0.814
Diabetes, no. (%) 14(7.6) 14(7.5) 8(4.3) 0.350
Chronic bronchitis or emphysema, no. (%) 15(8.2) 25(13.4) 21(11.4) 0.261
Expected maximal pain on coughb, median (IQR) 4(4,5) 4(4,5) 4(4,5) 0.831
Expected maximal pain at restb, median (IQR) 2(2,2) 2(2,2) 2(2,2) 0.784
Expected average painb, median (IQR) 3(3,3) 3(3,3) 3(3,3) 0.778
QoR-15 score, median (IQR) 142(139,144) 142(139,144) 143(139,144) 0.539
  1. Data are presented as the mean (SD), median (IQR), or number (%)
  2. Abbreviations: ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, BMI body mass index, IQR interquartile range, PONV postoperative nausea and vomiting, QoR-15 Quality of Recovery-15 questionnaire, SD standard deviation
  3. aApfel risk factors for PONV: female sex, previous history of postoperative nausea and vomiting or motion sickness, being a nonsmoker, and expected use of post-operative opioids for analgesia
  4. bPain rated on a 0–10 numerical rating scale