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Table 1 Patient, perioperative characteristics and outcomes

From: Opioid-free versus opioid-based anesthesia in pancreatic surgery

Characteristic Total (n = 77) OBA (n = 42) OFA (n = 35) P
Demographic Features
Age (years) 67 [27–85] 68 [27–85] 66 [39–81] 0.66
Female 30 (39%) 20 (47.6%) 10 (28.6%) 0.23
BMI (kg/m2) 27 [18–39] 27 [18–39] 27 [20–36] 0.44
Perioperative Factors
Procedures
  Pancreaticoduodenectomy 54 (70.1%) 31 (73.8%) 23 (65.7%) 0.96
  Distal Pancreatectomy 21 (27.3%) 10 (23.8%) 11 (31.4%)
  Other 2 (2.6%) 1 (2.4%) 1 (2.9%)
Operative time (minutes) 360 [103–660] 359 [166–660] 364 [103–544] 0.8
Atropine 7 (9.1%) 5 (11,9%) 2 (5,7%) 0.14
Norepinephrine (\(\upmu\) g/kg/min) 0.043 [0–0.2] 0.049 [0–0.2] 0.037 [0–0.11] 0.73
Blood loss (ml) 625 [50–3400] 700 [100–2600] 490 [50–3400] 0.59
Time to extubation (minutes) 7.0 [1.5–47] 7.0 [1.5–42] 7.5 [2–47] 0.88
Time to PACU discharge (Hours) 18.2 [7.1–21.7] 19.3 [7.1–20.9] 18.3 [7.9–21.7] 0.94
Length of stay (days) 12 [6–46] 14 [7–46] 10 [6–16]  < 0.001***
Index Complications
Clavien-Dindo
  None 7 (9.0%) 3 (7%) 4 (11.4%) 0.86
  Grade I 31 (39.7%) 13 (30.2%) 18 (51.4%)
  Grade II 21 (26.9%) 15 (34.9%) 6 (17.1%)
  Grade III 11 (14.1%) 7 (16.3%) 4 (11.4%)
  Grade IV 5 (6.4%) 3 (7.0%) 2 (5.7%)
  Grade V 3 (3.9%) 2 (4.7%) 1 (2.9%)
CCI 20.9 [0–100] 20.9 [0–100] 0 [0–100] 0.03*
POPF
  None 63 (81.8%) 33 (78.5%) 30 (85.7%) 0.76
  Grade A 4 (5.2%) 2 (4.8%) 2 (5.7%)
  Grade B 9 (11.7%) 7 (16.7%) 2 (5.7%)
  Grade C 1 (1.3%) 0 (0%) 1 (2.9%)
DGE
  None 66 (85.7%) 32 (76.2%) 34 (97.1%) 0.31
  Grade A 2 (2.6%) 2 (4.8%) 0 (0%)
  Grade B 7 (9.1%) 6 (14.2%) 1 (2.9%)
  Grade C 2 (2.6%) 2 (4.8%) 0 (0%)
Readmission 9 (11.7%) 8 (19%) 1 (2.9%) 0.09
30-Day mortality 10 (13%) 7 (16.7%) 3 (8.6%) 0.53
  1. OBA Opioid-Based Anesthesia, OFA Opioid-Free Anesthesia, CCI Comprehensive Complication Index, POPF Post-Operative Pancreatic Fistula, DGE Delayed Gastric Emptying. (ns: P > 0.05; *: P < 0.05; **: P < 0.01; ***: P < 0.001; ****: P < 0.0001)