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Table 2 Association of postoperative complications and patient characteristics by sex

From: The effects of preoperative alcohol, tobacco, and psychological stress on postoperative complications: a prospective observational study

  All (721) Male (260)   Female (461)  
   Postoperative complications   Postoperative complications  
   No (215) Yes (45) p value No (427) Yes (34) p value
Age (years) 62 (48–71) 65 (52–72) 66 (59–72) 0.27 57 (47–69) 67(62–73) 0.001*
BMI (kg/m2) 23 (21–25) 24 (22–27) 23 (22–25) 0.18 22 (20–25) 22 (19–24) 0.39
ASA-PS I/II/III 212/483/26 30/175/10 2/41/2 0.21 172/242/13 8/25/1 0.15
Preoperative use of psychotropics 85/693 (12%) 23/206 (11%) 5/45 (11%) 1.00 51/409 (12%) 6/33 (18%) 0.41
Surgical time (minutes) 125 (81–201) 104 (66–227) 262 (186–344) p < 0.001* 118 (85–161) 196 (131–294) p < 0.001*
Anesthesia time (minutes) 176 (134–254) 173 (107–282) 305 (236–443) p < 0.001* 168 (135–218) 239 (179–359) p < 0.001*
sAs 8 (7–9) 8 (7–8) 7 (6–8) 0.039* 8 (7–9) 7 (7–8) 0.057
Drinking (lifetime) 514/710 (72%) 185/213 (87%) 34/45 (76%) 0.055 275/419 (66%) 20/33 (61%) 0.56
Drinking habit (the preceding year) 429/710 (60%) 166/213 (78%) 30/45 (67%) 0.11 215/419 (51%) 18/33 (55%) 0.72
Unchanged drinking habit 159/423 (38%) 69/167 (41%) 11/29 (38%) 0.73 77/209 (37%) 2/18 (11%) 0.052
Improved drinking habit 264/423 (62%) 98/167 (59%) 18/29 (62%) 0.73 132/209 (63%) 16/18 (89%) 0.052
AUDIT score 2 (0–5) 4 (1–9) 6 (0–12) 0.72 0 (0–3) 1 (0–2) 0.80
AUDIT score of 8 or more 111/666 (17%) 61/195 (31%) 17/39 (44%) 0.14 32/401 (8.0%) 1/31 (3.2%) 0.54
Smoking (lifetime) 265/693 (38%) 129/209 (62%) 32/44 (73%) 0.17 96/407 (24%) 6/33 (18%) 0.48
Smoking habit (the preceding year) 144/693 (21%) 70/209 (33%) 17/44 (39%) 0.51 54/407 (13%) 3/33 (9.1%) 0.68
Unchanged smoking habit 41/140 (29%) 22/69 (32%) 3/16 (19%) 0.46 16/53 (30%) 0/2 0.89
Improved smoking habit 99/140 (71%) 47/69 (68%) 13/16 (81%) 0.46 37/53 (70%) 2/2 0.89
FTND score 0 (0–0) 0 (0–2) 0 (0–3) 0.57 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0.49
FTND score of 3 or more 92/686 (13%) 48/207 (23%) 11/43 (26%) 0.74 32/404 (7.9%) 1/32 (3.1%) 0.52
K6 score 3 (1–6) 2 (0–5) 3 (1–5) 0.68 3 (1–6) 5 (2–8) 0.12
K6 score of 8 or more 108/694 (16%) 25/210 (12%) 4/45 (8.9%) 0.75 69/405 (17%) 10/34 (29%) 0.071
HADS score 8 (4–13) 8 (4–12) 8 (4–13) 0.49 8 (5–13) 8 (5–15) 0.51
HADS score of 20 or more 40/690 (5.8%) 9/207 (4.3%) 3/45 (6.7%) 0.78 24/404 (5.9%) 4/34 (12%) 0.33
  1. Categorical variables are shown as proportion (%), and continuous variables are shown as median (interquartile range)
  2. BMI body mass index; ASA-PS the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification; sAs Surgical Apgar score; AUDIT Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; FTND Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; K6 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale; HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
  3. *p < 0.05