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Table 1 Patient Characteristics by acute kidney injury status

From: Mild increases in plasma creatinine after intermediate to high-risk abdominal surgery are associated with long-term renal injury

Variables No AKI (N = 706) AKI stage 1 (N = 81) AKI stage 2–3 (N = 28) P-value
Age (years) 65 [55–72] 68 [63–74] 65 [57–75] 0.038
Male (%) 424 (60) 60 (74) 25 (89) 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 25 [23–29] 26 [22–30] 27 [25–35] 0.1
ASA score (1–2 / 3–4) 430 / 276 50 / 31 16 / 12 0.9
Preop Hb (g/dL) 13.3 [12–14.5] 13.4 [11.8–14.3] 13.9 [12.5–14.7] 0.7
Preop creatinine (mg/dL) 0.8 [0.7–1.0] 1.0 [0.8–1.1] 1.0 [0.8 1.2] < 0.001
Comorbidities; N (%)
 Ischemic heart disease 60 (8.5%) 3 (3.7%) 9 (32%) < 0.001
 Coronary arterial bypass graft 28 (3.9%) 3 (3.7%) 3 (11%) 0.2
 Hypertension 319 (45%) 52 (64%) 20 (71%) < 0.001
 Hyperlipidaemia 194 (27%) 28 (35%) 7 (25%) 0.4 0.2
 Stroke 28 (3.9%) 2 (2.5%) 3 (11%) 0.01
 Atrial fibrillation 44 (6.2%) 12 (15%) 1 (3.6%) 0.9
 Diabetes mellitus type 2 151 (21%) 17 (21%) 7 (25%) 0.008
 COPD 86 (12%) 10 (12%) 9 (32%) 0.7
 Cirrhosis 53 (7.5%) 4 (4.9%) 2 (7.1%)
Medications; N (%)
 Aspirin 236 (33%) 32 (40%) 8 (29%) 0.5
 Clopidogrel 32 (4.5%) 1 (1.2%) 3 (11%) 0.1
 ẞ blocker 166 (24%) 28 (35%) 13 (46%) 0.003
 ACEI 135 (19%) 23 (28%) 11 (39%) 0.007
 ARB 47 (6.7%) 8 (9.9%) 3 (11%) 0.4
 Calcium channel blocker 113 (16%) 19 (23%) 7 (25%) 0.1
 Diuretics 59 (8.4%) 8 (9.9%) 8 (29%) 0.001
 Statin 211 (30%) 18 (22%) 12 (43%) 0.1
 Oral hypoglycaemic drugs 111 (15.7%) 10 (12%) 4 (14%) 0.7
 Insulin 56 (7.9%) 7 (8.6%) 2 (7.1%) 0.9
 Oral anticoagulation 65 (9.2%) 9 (11%) 3 (11%) 0.8
Type of Surgery (N)     0.02
 Pancreatectomy 155 (22%) 18 (22%) 3 (11%)  
 Hepatobiliary 189 (27%) 14 (17%) 3 (11%)  
 Oesophagectomy 75 (11%) 12 (15%) 3 (11%)  
 Cystectomy 63 (8.9%) 15 (19%) 7 (25%)  
 Cancer debulking 32 (4.5%) 2 (2.5%) 2 (7.1%)  
 Major aortic vascular surgery 144 (20%) 15 (19%) 9 (32%)  
 Other surgical procedure * 48 (6.7%) 5 (6.2%) 1 (3.6%)  
  1. Values are presented as medians [interquartiles ranges] or numbers (percentages %)
  2. Abbreviation: COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, AKI acute kidney injury, BMI body mass index, preop preoperative, ACEI Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ARB Angiotensin II receptor blocker, Hb haemoglobin, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists
  3. * included: gastrectomy, open colectomy nephrectomy, surrenalectomy, prostatectomy)