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Table 3 Results of unadjusted logistic regression analyses of patient background and perioperative factors in patients underwent EVD procedures

From: Risk factors for pediatric surgical site infection following neurosurgical procedures for hydrocephalus: a retrospective single-center cohort study

  Total (N = 72) Case without SSI (N = 67) Case with SSI (N = 5) Unadjusted logistic regression
n % n % n % Odds ratio 95% CI p -value
Female 42 58.3 41 61.2 1 20 0.18 0.02–1.66 0.13
Age(Month), median (IQR) 115 (30, 170) 107 (26, 172) 145 (118, 145) 1.00 0.99–1.02 0.58
Age
  < 1y 10 13.9 10 14.9 0 0.0 (base)   
 1-2y 11 15.3 11 16.4 0 0.0    
 3-10y 19 26.4 17 25.4 2 40.0 1.02 0.15–6.75 0.98
 11-18y 29 40.3 26 38.8 3 60.0    
 18y- 6 8.3 6 9.0 0 0.0    
Weight(kg), median (IQR) 32.2 (12.6, 53.3) 32.2 (12.6, 53.3) 34.8 (31, 35) 1.00 0.97–1.04 0.80
ASA Classification
 Class ≤ II 12 16.7 12 17.9 0 0.0    
 Class ≥ III 63 87.5 58 86.6 5 100.0 3.75 0.58–24.16 0.16
Wound Class          1.00*
 1: Clean 68 94.4 66 98.5 2 40.0    
 2: Clean-Contaminated 1 1.4 1 1.5 0 0.0    
 3: Contaminated 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0    
 4: Dirty/Infected 3 4.2 3 4.5 0 0.0    
Comorbidity
 Brain tumor 26 36.1 24 35.8 2 40.0 1.28 0.20–8.18 0.80
 Cardiac disease 3 4.2 2 3.0 1 20.0 8.50 0.63–114.86 0.11
 Gastrostomy status 13 18.1 12 17.9 1 20.0 1.21 0.12–11.79 0.87
 Prematurity (GA < 37 week) 2 2.8 2 3.0 0 0.0    1.00*
Number of shunt revision, mean (SD) 1 (1, 3) 1 (1, 3) 0.5 (0, 3.5) 0.92 0.59–1.42 0.70
Emergent surgery 61 84.7 58 86.6 3 60.0 0.31 0.05–2.06 0.23
Duration of surgery(min), median(IQR) 51 (27, 74) 51 (37, 74) 38.5 (26, 51) 0.96 0.89–1.04 0.35
Prophylactic antibiotics 65 90.3 61 91.0 4 80.0 0.59 0.06–5.89 0.65
 Cefazolin 55 76.4 51 76.1 4 80.0 1.49 0.16–14.19 0.73
 Ampicillin 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0    
 Cefoxitin 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0    
 Ciprofloxacin 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0    
 Cefepime 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0    
 Ceftazidime 2 2.8 2 3.0 0 0.0    1.00*
 Ceftriaxone 4 5.6 4 6.0 0 0.0    1.00*
 Clindamycin 2 2.8 2 3.0 0 0.0    1.00*
 Metronidazole 1 1.4 1 1.5 0 0.0    1.00*
 Vancomycin 6 8.3 6 9.0 0 0.0    1.00*
 Meropenem 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0    
Surgeon n = 10    0.46*
Skin preparation agent          
 None 11 15.3 10 14.9 1 20.0 (base)   
 CHG-alcohol(Chloraprep™) 4 5.6 4 6.0 0 0.0 0.64 0.06–6.79 0.71
 Povidone-iodine 50 69.4 47 70.1 3 60.0 1.11 0.06–20.49 0.94
 Povidone-iodine and CHG-alcohol 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0    
 Povidone-iodine and alcohol 10 13.9 9 13.4 1 20.0    
 CHG, alcohol, and povidone-iodine 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0    
Average temperature (°C), median (IQR) 36.3 (35.6, 36.7) 36.3 (35.6, 36.7) 36.4 (36.4, 36.4) 1.39 0.11–18.0 0.80
Minimum temperature(°C), median (IQR) 35.5 (34.8, 36.2) 35.5 (34.8, 36.2) 35.6 (35.6, 35.6) 1.07 0.13–8.67 0.95
Propofol (mg/kg), median(IQR) 2.9 (1.4, 4.5) 2.9 (1.4, 4.4) 3.4 (2, 6.4) 1.04 0.97–1.12 0.28
ET sevoflurane, median(IQR) 91 (27, 191) 104 (32, 193) 21 (0, 69) 0.99 0.98–1.00 0.16
ET isoflurane, median(IQR) 0 (0, 19) 0 (0, 6) 0 (0, 34) 1.01 0.99–1.03 0.21
O2 flow, median(IQR) 280 (193, 343) 282 (199, 344) 128 (77, 215) 0.99 0.985–1.00 0.23
  1. SSIs surgical site infection, EVD external ventricular drain, IQR interquartile range, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification, GA gestational age, SD standard deviation, ET end tidal, CHG chlorhexidine gluconate
  2. *We used univariate analysis