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Table 2 Results of univariate and unadjusted logistic regression analyses for variables of case background and perioperative factors in SSIs after shunt surgery

From: Risk factors for pediatric surgical site infection following neurosurgical procedures for hydrocephalus: a retrospective single-center cohort study

 

Total (N = 323)

Case without SSI (N = 309)

Case with SSI (N = 14)

Unadjusted logistic regression

n

%

n

%

n

%

Odds ratio

95% CI

p -value

Female

129

39.9

212

68.6

9

64.3

1.20

0.39–3.69

0.74

Age(Month), median (IQR)

139

(33, 202)

131

(33, 198)

170

(145, 209)

1.00

1.00–1.01

0.16

Age

        

0.17*

  < 1y

43

13.3

41

13.3

2

14.3

(base)

  

 1-2y

50

15.5

49

15.9

1

7.1

0.42

0.03–4.78

0.48

 3-10y

60

18.6

60

19.4

0

0.0

   

 11-18y

123

38.1

114

36.9

9

64.3

1.62

0.33–7.80

0.55

 18y-

47

14.6

45

14.6

2

14.3

0.91

0.12–6.77

0.93

Weight(kg), median (IQR)

33.6

(12.7, 58.2)

32.6

(12.4, 57.8)

49.8

(35.0, 58.6)

1.01

0.99–1.02

0.38

ASA Classification

         

 Class ≤ II

78

24.1

75

24.3

3

21.4

(base)

  

 Class ≥ III

245

75.9

234

75.7

11

78.6

1.18

0.32–4.32

0.81

Wound Class

        

1.00*

 1: Clean

320

99.1

306

99.0

14

100.0

   

 2: Clean-Contaminated

3

0.9

3

1.0

0

0.0

   

 3: Contaminated

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0.0

   

 4: Dirty/Infected

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0.0

   

Comorbidity

 Brain tumor

93

28.8

87

28.2

6

42.9

1.91

0.65–5.68

0.24

 Cardiac disease

9

2.8

7

2.3

2

14.3

7.19

1.35–38.35

0.02

 Gastrostomy status

63

19.5

58

18.8

5

35.7

2.40

0.78–7.44

0.13

 Prematurity (GA < 37 week)

6

1.9

6

1.9

0

0.0

  

1.00*

Procedure

        

1.00*

 V-P shunt

306

94.7

292

94.5

14

100.0

   

 V-A shunt

7

2.2

7

2.3

0

0.0

   

 L-P shunt

10

3.1

10

3.2

0

0.0

   

Number of shunt revision, mean (SD)

1

(2,4)

2

(1,4)

3

(1,6)

1.12

0.99–1.27

0.07

Emergent surgery

198

61.3

190

61.5

8

57.1

0.84

0.28–2.47

0.74

Duration of surgery(min), median(IQR)

77

(56, 108)

77

(56, 108)

76

(60, 96)

1.00

0.99–1.01

0.92

Prophylactic antibiotics

320

99.1

306

99.0

14

100.0

 

1.00*

 Cefazolin

274

84.8

264

85.4

10

71.4

0.43

0.13–1.42

0.16

 Ampicillin

1

0.3

1

0.3

0

0.0

  

1.00*

 Cefoxitin

1

0.3

1

0.3

0

0.0

  

1.00*

 Ciprofloxacin

4

1.2

4

1.3

0

0.0

  

1.00*

 Cefepime

5

1.5

4

1.3

1

7.1

5.87

0.61–56.2

0.13

 Ceftazidime

1

0.3

1

0.3

0

0.0

  

1.00*

 Ceftriaxone

5

1.5

5

1.6

0

0.0

  

1.00*

 Clindamycin

19

5.9

16

5.2

3

21.4

4.99

1.27–19.70

0.02

 Metronidazole

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0.0

   

 Vancomycin

23

7.1

21

6.8

2

14.3

2.29

0.48–10.89

0.3

 Meropenem

3

0.9

3

1.0

0

0.0

  

1.00*

Surgeon n = 10

  

0.54*

Skin preparation agent

        

0.93*

 None

36

11.1

35

11.3

1

7.1

(base)

  

 CHG-alcohol(Chloraprep™)

235

72.8

224

72.5

11

78.6

1.72

0.22–13.72

0.61

 Povidone-iodine

17

5.3

16

5.2

1

7.1

2.19

0.13–37.22

0.59

 Povidone-iodine and CHG-alcohol

5

1.5

5

1.6

0

0.0

   

 Povidone-iodine and alcohol

28

8.7

27

8.7

1

7.1

1.30

0.08–21.68

0.86

 CHG, alcohol, and povidone-iodine

2

0.6

2

0.6

0

0.0

   

Average temperature (°C), median (IQR)

36.0

(35.6, 36.4)

36.0

(35.6, 36.4)

35.1

(35.1, 35.1)

0.18

0.01–2.93

0.23

Minimum temperature(°C), median (IQR)

35.4

(34.8, 35.9)

35.4

(34.8, 35.9)

34.9

(34.9, 34.9)

0.44

0.03–7.06

0.56

Propofol (mg/kg), median(IQR)a

2.9

(2.0, 4.7)

2.9

(1.4, 3.8)

3.0

(2.1, 6.3)

1.00

0.91–1.10

0.96

ET sevoflurane, median(IQR)a

192

(102, 293)

192

(102, 298)

172

(116, 253)

1.00

0.996–1.003

0.78

ET isoflurane, median(IQR)a

0

(0, 0)

0

(0, 0)

0

(0, 0)

0.99

0.97–1.01

0.29

O2 flow, median(IQR)a

347

(272, 440)

347

(271, 451)

340

(278, 425)

1.00

0.996–1.004

0.99

  1. SSIs surgical site infection, IQR interquartile range, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification, GA gestational age, V-P ventriculo-peritoneal, EVD external ventricular drain, ETV endoscopic third ventriculostomy, V-A ventriculo-atrial, L-P Lumbo-peritoneal, SD standard deviation, ET end tidal, CHG chlorhexidine gluconate
  2. *Univariate analysis was performed
  3. aThe amount of milligram per kilogram of body weight was calculated for intravenous drugs, and the end tidal concentration per minute for volatile anesthetics or oxygen was summed up by the anesthesia duration (minutes)