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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study population

From: Evaluation of early postoperative intravenous opioid rescue as a novel quality measure in patients who receive thoracic epidural analgesia: a retrospective cohort analysis and prospective performance improvement intervention

Characteristic No PACU-OpResc
(n = 743)
PACU-OpResc
(n = 211)
Age (years)   62.00 ± 13.34 58.93 ± 12.92
Sex Male 321 (43.2%) 97 (46.0%)
Female 422 (56.8%) 114 (54.0%)
Height, cm   167.77 ± 10.08 168.16 ± 10.12
Weight, kg   79.78 ± 22.15 77.66 ± 19.28
BMI, kg/m2   28.20 ± 6.91 27.39 ± 6.03
ASA Status 1 14 (1.9%) 1 (0.5%)
2 218 (29.3%) 58 (27.5%)
3 483 (65.0%) 143 (67.8%)
4 28 (3.8%) 9 (4.3%)
Surgical Service General 409 (55.0%) 120 (56.9%)
Gynecology 146 (19.7%) 28 (13.3%)
Not documented 81 (10.9%) 17 (8.1%)
Thoracic 77 (10.4%) 38 (18.0%)
Vascular 21 (2.8%) 6 (2.8%)
Orthopedics 5 (0.7%) 1 (0.5%)
Plastics 4 (0.5%) 1 (0.5%)
Duration of surgery, min   267.00 (184.00, 393.00) 258.00 (188.00, 384.00)
Work RVUs   28.78 ± 14.48 27.71 ± 13.48
High SPORC score   26 (3.5%) 5 (2.4%)
Preoperative opioid prescription*   127 (17.1%) 75 (35.5%)
Intraoperative morphine equivalent dose (mg)   12.00 (10.00, 20.00) 15.00 (10.00, 25.00)
PACU morphine equivalent dose (mg)   0.00 (0.00, 0.00) 5.00 (2.50, 7.50)
TEA Placement and management    
Placement in sitting position   640 (86.1%) 177 (83.9%)
Midline Approach   322 (43.3%) 87 (41.2%)
Documented local anesthetic bolus   182 (24%) 66 (31%)
First Case   361 (48.6%) 100 (47.4%)
Placement Attempts 1 402 (54.1%) 103 (48.8%)
2 163 (21.9%) 45 (21.3%)
≥3 88 (11.8%) 38 (17.9%)
Not documented 90 (12.1%) 25 (11.8%)
Placement duration, min   13.00 ± 8.30 13.72 ± 9.45
Time from surgical Incision to TEA infusion start (minutes)   27.60 ± 71.74 31.83 ± 74.59
Epidural infusion during > 50% of case time   603 (81.2%) 146 (69.2%)
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, frequency (prevalence in %) or median (interquartile range (25th–75th percentile), values separated by comma). *Opioid prescription within 90 days prior to surgery
  2. ASA American Society of Anesthesiologist; BMI Body Mass Index; PACU Post Anesthesia Care Unit; PACU-OpResc intravenous opioid rescue analgesia in the post anesthesia care unit; RVUs Relative Value Units; SPORC Score of Prediction of postOperative Respiratory complications; TEA Thoracic Epidural Analgesia;