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Table 5 Comparisons of survived and death cases. Values are mean (SD), median (IQR [range]) or number (proportion)

From: Malignant hyperthermia when dantrolene is not readily available

  Survived Death P value
Age; y (n = 92) 24.2 (16.7) 23.1 (17.3) 0.756
Sex; male (n = 92) 40 (80.0%) 32 (76.2%) 0.659
Combined congenital disease (n = 92) 21 (42.0%) 22 (52.4%) 0.32
First sign interval; h (n = 83) 1.0 (0.2–2.8 [0–11.0]) 1.5 (1.0–2.0 [0–18.0]) 0.787
Maximum end-tidal PCO2; mmHg (n = 39) 85.0 (71.8–101.3 [60.0–149.0]) 91.0 (86.0–126.5 [75.0–223,0]) 0.033
Maximum arterial PCO2; mmHg (n = 44) 83.0 (73.9–99.4 [53.0–120.0]) 101.0 (87.8–152.2 [52.8–250.0]) 0.006
T first measured; °C (n = 64) 38.5 (38.0–39.1 [35.8–43.0]) 39.3 (38.6–41.1 [37.0–42.5]) 0.012
Maximum T; °C (n = 88) 40.3 (39.3–41.4 [38.3–44.5]) 42.3 (42.0–43.1 [39.4–46]) < 0.001
Maximum HR; bpm (n = 65) 160.0 (140.0–180.0 [110.0–220.0]) 160.0 (150.0–190.0 [120–230.0]) 0.187
Generalised muscular rigidity (n = 92) 29 (58.0%) 31 (73.8%) 0.113
Normal BP when first discovered (n = 92) 18 (36.0%) 8 (19.0%) 0.072
Increased BP when first discovered (n = 92) 1 (2.0%) 5 (11.9%) 0.055
No drop in BP when first discovered (n = 92) 19 (38.0%) 13 (31.0%) 0.48
Cola-colored urine (n = 92) 11 (22.0%) 12 (28.6%) 0.468
Oliguria or anuria (n = 92) 9 (18.0%) 13 (31.0%) 0.147
Minimum pH (n = 48) 7.14 (7.08–7.22 [6.81–7.40]) 6.92 (6.79–7.05 [6.57–7.24]) < 0.001
Potassium; mmol/L (n = 44) 5.2 (4.6–5.7 [3.8–6.7]) 7.1 (6.5–8.3 [5.7–10.1]) < 0.001
Coagulation disorders (n = 92) 11 (22.0%) 19 (45.2%) 0.018
Patient used sodium bicarbonate (n = 92) 31 (62.0%) 30 (71.4%) 0.341
Patient used glucocorticoid (n = 92) 35 (70.0%) 31 (73.8%) 0.686
Patient used active cooling (n = 92) 42 (84.0%) 30 (71.4%) 0.145
Patient used furosemide (n = 92) 32 (64.0%) 17 (40.5%) 0.024
Patient used mannitol (n = 92) 12 (24.0%) 3 (7.1%) 0.029
Patient used blood purification treatment (n = 92) 13 (26.0%) 3 (7.1%) 0.017
Clinical grading scale score; point (n = 82) 58.0 (51.0–63.0 [33.0–73.0]) 58.0 (51.0–61.0 [33.0–73.0]) 0.809
  1. PCO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide; T temperature; HR heart rate; BP blood pressure