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Table 1 Test results of 10 filter designs from leak tests performed on a Perseus A500 anesthesia machine (Drager, Lubeck, Germany)

From: Development and validation of a 3D printed antiviral ventilator filter - a comparative study

Device Circuit leak
(ml/min)
Circuit Compliance
(ml/cmH2O)
Peak inspiratory pressure
(cmH2O)
Adequate dye test
Commercial HME 10 1.3 19 NA
Commercial HME, sediment filter cartridge 10 1.4 23 NA
Commercial HME, 1.5 μm filter paper 44 1.5 19 NA
Commercial HME, 5 mm sponge 43 1.4 21 NA
Commercial HME, 2 mm Sponge 80 1.5 20 NA
3D printed HME, Sediment filter cartridge, 5 mm sponge 69 1.4 20 Yes
3D printed HME, Sediment filter cartridge, 2 mm sponge 70 1.4 19 Yes
3D printed HME, 1.5 μm filter paper, 5 mm sponge 15 1.4 27 Yes
3D printed HME, 1.5 μm filter paper, 2 mm sponge 35 1.5 22 Yes
3D printed viral filter, sediment filter cartridge 67 1.4 20 Yes
3D printed viral filter, 1.5 μm filter paper 29 1.4 23 Yes
  1. Leak compliance and peak pressure tests were conducted 3 times, and the wort result is reported, 3D three-dimensional, HME heat and moisture exchanger, NA not applicable