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Table 3 Angulation information obtained by ultrasonography

From: Landmark-guided versus modified ultrasound-assisted Paramedian techniques in combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for elderly patients with hip fractures: a randomized controlled trial

  Number of views
Comparison between actual and maximum cephalad angle
 actual angle ≤ maximum angle 35 (87.5%)
 actual angle > maximum angle 5 (12.5%)
Cephalad angle discrepancy
 accurate 0° ≤ Δa ≤ 5° n (%) 28 (70%)
 acceptable 5° < Δ ≤ 10° n (%) 7 (17.5%)
 inaccurate Δ > 10° n (%) 5 (12.5%)
Medial angle discrepancy
 accurate 0° ≤ Δ ≤ 5° n (%) 32 (80%)
 acceptable 5° < Δ ≤ 10° n (%) 6 (15%)
 inaccurate Δ > 10° n (%) 2 (25%)
  1. aΔ indicates the discrepancy between the suggested and actual angles