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Table 2 Comparison of procedure related data

From: Landmark-guided versus modified ultrasound-assisted Paramedian techniques in combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for elderly patients with hip fractures: a randomized controlled trial

  Landmark- guided group
n = 40
Ultrasound- assisted group
n = 40
P value 95% CI of differences (%)
First pass success, n (%) 8 (20) 28 (70) < 0.001 (31.1 to 68.9)
Success within 2 passes, n (%) 16 (40) 33 (82.5) < 0.001 (23.3 to 61.7)
First attempt success, n (%) 17 (42.5) 34 (85) < 0.001 (23.6 to 61.4)
Success in 2 attempts, n (%) 34 (85) 38 (95) 0.264a (−3 to 23)
Number of attempts 2 [1 to 2] 1 [1 to 1] < 0.001  
Number of passes 3 [2 to 4] 1 [1 to 2] < 0.001  
Locating time(s) 32.5 [21.3 to 40.8] 337.5 [300.0 to 403.8] < 0.001  
Puncture time(s) 320.0 [223.3 to 583.0] 227.5 [170.0 to 340.0] 0.003  
Total time(s) 440.3 ± 240.1 608.2 ± 196.9 0.001  
Patients’ satisfaction;4–5 26 (65.0%) 36 (90.0%) 0.007 (7.5 to 42.5)
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD, median [interquartile range] or n (%)
  2. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, CI confidence interval
  3. aContinuity correction