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Fig. 3 | BMC Anesthesiology

Fig. 3

From: Landmark-guided versus modified ultrasound-assisted Paramedian techniques in combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for elderly patients with hip fractures: a randomized controlled trial

Fig. 3

Comparison of operating spaces. The ultrasound image shows the L2-L3 interlaminar space in the parasagittal oblique (PSO) view. The posterior complex (PC) and anterior complex (AC) are shown at the same time. The modified preprocedural ultrasound-guided technique placed the upper edge of the inferior laminar at the center of the ultrasound screen and suggested a lower needle insertion point, which provided a larger cephalad angle (α), and a wider operation space (S2) than the previous technique which placed the PC and AC at the center of the screen (α’ and S1)

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