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Table 1 The length of anesthesia was defined from the time that the anesthesiologists started the spinal anesthesia in the patients to the time when the patients were sent to the post-anesthesia care unit. The length of surgery was defined from the time of initial incision to the time of the closure of the skin. POD, postoperative delirium; ASA, American Society of Anesthesiologists; cm, centimeter; min, minute; kg, kilogram; ml, milliliter; SD, standard deviation; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid

From: Cerebrospinal fluid cholinergic biomarkers are associated with postoperative delirium in elderly patients undergoing Total hip/knee replacement: a prospective cohort study

Characteristics of participants.
  POD(N = 51) Non-POD(N = 396)
Age (year), mean ± SD 73.3 ± 6.5 72.2 ± 6.0
Male, n (%) 23 (45.1) 187 (47.3)
Years of education, n (%)
 0 4 (7.8) 28 (7.1)
 1–9 22 (43.1) 168 (42.4)
 10–13 12 (23.5) 81 (20.5)
 14–17 9 (17.6) 65 (16.4)
  > 17 6 (11.8) 54 (13.6)
Height (cm), mean ± SD 163.2 ± 7.1 161.5 ± 6.3
Body weight (kg), mean ± SD 67.4 ± 8.8 65.3 ± 8.7
BMI (kg/m 2), mean ± SD 26.3 ± 3.4 25.1 ± 2.8
ASA class, n (%)
 I 9 (17.6) 63 (15.9)
 II 30 (58.8) 231 (58.3)
 III 12 (23.5) 102 (25.8)
Time of anesthesia (min), mean ± SD 145.6 ± 19.2 143.2 ± 18.9
Time of surgery (min), mean ± SD 110.3 ± 20.3 108.7 ± 19.1
Type of surgery
 Total hip arthroplasty/replacement, n (%) 30 (58.8) 222 (56.1)
 Total knee arthroplasty/replacement, n (%) 21 (41.2) 174 (43.9)
 Estimated blood loss (ml), median and 25–75 percentile 180 (125–230) 170 (115–220)
 Postoperative the highest CAM score, median and 25–75 percentile 18 (15–27)  
 Postoperative the highest MDAS score, median and 25–75 percentile 7 (5–11)  
 Postoperative the highest VAS score, median and 25–75 percentile 3 (1–5) 2 (1–3)