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Table 5 Factors associated with risk for PONV until noon the first postoperative day

From: Risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting in hip and knee arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study after spinal anaesthesia including intrathecal morphine

  Number of Number of patients Unadjusted OR  
patients with PONV (%) (CI) p-value
Gender
 Female 42 20 (48%) 2.33 (1.01–5.38) 0.046
 Male 57 16 (28%)   
BMI
 < 35 kg/m2 88 30 (34%) 1.93 (0.52–7.20) 0.32
 ≥ 35 kg/m2 10 5 (50%)   
History of PONV
 Yes 19 13 (68%) 5.37 (1.82–15.8) 0.003
 No 80 23 (29%)   
History of motion sickness
 Yes 19 8 (42%) 1.35 (0.49–3.75) 0.56
 No 80 28 (35%)   
Non-smoker
 Yes 98 36 (36%) NA 0.184
 No 1 1 (100%)   
Preoperative treatment with opioids
 Yes 12 4 (33%) 0.90 (0.24–3.08) 0.81
 No 87 32 (37%)   
COX-2 inhibitor in premedication
 Yes 9 3 (33%) 0.86 (0.21–3.68) 0.84
 No 90 33 (37%)   
Suboptimal PONV prophylaxis
 Yes 27 15 (56%) 3.04 (1.22–7.57) 0.015
 No 72 21 (29%)   
Type of prosthesis surgery
 Hip 78 27 (35%) 0.71 (0.26–1.88) 0.49
 Knee 21 9 (43%)   
Intrathecal morphine, dose
 80–100 μg 11 5 (45%) 1.51 (0.42–5.42) 0.79
 120 μg 76 27 (35%) reference  
 140–200 μg 12 4 (33%) 0.91 (0.25–3.29)  
Gabapentin given postoperatively
 Yes 36 13 (39%) 1.22 (0.52–2.88) 0.66
 No 63 23 (35%)   
Given oral or parenteral opioids until noon Day 1
 Yes 97 35 (36%) 0.56 (0.03–9.3) 0.68
 No 2 1 (50%)   
Maximal NRS ≥5 for pain until noon Day 1.
 Yes 39 17 (44%) 1.67 (0.72–3.84) 0.23
 No 60 19 (32%)   
  1. Number of patients is the total number in the subgroup. PONV risk is presented as the number of patients in the subgroup with PONV (%). Unadjusted OR, unadjusted odds ratio; CI 95% confidence interval, NRS Numeric Rating Scale, Day 1 first day after surgery, NA not available for calculation