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Table 1 Patient characteristics (n = 99)

From: Risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting in hip and knee arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study after spinal anaesthesia including intrathecal morphine

  Value
Gender, female sex 42 (42%)
Age, years 67 (37–87)
BMI, m2kg−1 28 (19–43)
ASA-class
 1 26 (26%)
 2 60 (61%)
 3 13 (13%)
Smokers 1 (1%)
History of motion sickness 19 (19%)
Previous PONV 19 (19%)
Preoperative treatment with opioids 12 (12%)
COX-2 inhibitor in premedication 9 (9%)
Apfel-score
 0–1 0 (0%)
 2 44 (44%)
 3 35 (35%)
 4 20 (20%)
Hip prosthesis surgery, numbers 78 (79%)
Knee prosthesis surgery, numbers 21 (21%)
Spinal anaesthesia combined with intrathecal morphine and clonidine 99 (100%)
Duration of anaesthesia, minutes 170 (105–336)
Duration of surgery, minutes 95 (57–256)
PONV prophylaxis
 Betamethasone 93 (94%)
 Ondansetron 54 (55%)
 Droperidol 20 (20%)
Number of prophylaxes given
 0 3 (3%)
 1 45 (45%)
 2 31 (31%)
 3 20 (20%)
Rescue antiemetics until noon Day 1 27 (27%)
Gabapentin included in postoperative medication 36 (36%)
  1. Values are presented as numeric values (% of total) or median (SD). ASA American Society of Anaesthesiologists Classification, PONV postoperative nausea and vomiting, BMI body mass index. PONV, number of prophylaxis given: Of those receiving only 1 prophylactic drug, 42 patients received betamethasone and 3 received ondansetron. For those given two prophylaxis, all received betamethasone and ondansetron. No missing data except BMI of one patient