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Table 5 Vital signs at each timepoint a

From: Pain management after ambulatory surgery: a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blinded parallel controlled trial comparing nalbuphine and tramadol

  Vital signs Group Eb Group Cc P
T0 SBP 121.63 ± 16.26 122.64 ± 16.01 0.513
  DBP 74.92 ± 9.48 74.63 ± 8.80 0.738
  Respiratory rate 17.09 ± 1.81 17.04 ± 2.18 0.808
  Heart rate 74.45 ± 8.43 74.48 ± 9.75 0.978
T1 SBP 128.96 ± 17.74** 130.18 ± 17.05** 0.465
  DBP 79.04 ± 11.32** 78.85 ± 11.45** 0.864
  Respiratory rate 16.52 ± 2.40 16.89 ± 2.56 0.121
  Heart rate 78.69 ± 16.33 78.89 ± 14.97 0.893
T2 SBP 123.87 ± 16.07* 126.10 ± 16.68* 0.157
  DBP 76.20 ± 9.88* 77.12 ± 12.16* 0.390
  Respiratory rate 16.74 ± 2.19 17.12 ± 2.46 0.092
  Heart rate 76.82 ± 13.95* 76.54 ± 12.06* 0.822
T3 SBP 118.37 ± 15.23* 121.18 ± 15.53* 0.065
  DBP 72.82 ± 9.19* 74.00 ± 9.70* 0.209
  Respiratory rate 16.53 ± 1.85 16.72 ± 2.13 0.321
  Heart rate 74.06 ± 10.82* 74.59 ± 9.58* 0.598
T4 SBP 116.72 ± 15.43* 118.82 ± 15.19* 0.169
  DBP 71.27 ± 9.36* 72.07 ± 9.73* 0.399
  Respiratory rate 16.44 ± 1.78 16.62 ± 2.20 0.366
  Heart rate 72.81 ± 9.44* 73.62 ± 8.99* 0.378
T5 SBP 116.53 ± 14.86* 117.11 ± 14.46* 0.691
  DBP 70.64 ± 9.39* 70.63 ± 9.45* 0.986
  Respiratory rate 16.46 ± 1.84 16.54 ± 2.07 0.682
  Heart rate 72.65 ± 9.35* 72.76 ± 9.22* 0.905
  1. aT0: at admission, T1: before administration, T2: after administration at 30 min, T3: after administration at 2 h, T4: after administration at 4 h, T5: after administration at 6 h
  2. bGroup E (n = 209) was treated with nalbuphine hydrochloride diluted with saline to 1 mg/L.
  3. cGroup C (n = 228) was administered tramadol hydrochloride diluted with saline to 10 mg/L.
  4. *Difference is statistically significant compared with T1; **difference is statistically significant compared with T0