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Table 3 Pain reduction when compared to baseline (T1), n (%)a

From: Pain management after ambulatory surgery: a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blinded parallel controlled trial comparing nalbuphine and tramadol

   Group Eb Group Cc χ2 P
T2d Effective 186 (89.0) 178 (78.4) 8.837 0.003
  Noneffective 23 (11.0) 49 (21.6)   
T3e Effective 192 (97.0) 195 (90.7) 6.874 0.009
  Noneffective 6 (3.0%) 20 (9.3%)   
T4f Effective 190 (97.4) 203 (97.1) 0.036 0.850
  Noneffective 5 (2.6) 6 (2.9)   
T5g Effective 189 (97.9) 201 (97.6) 0.000 1.000
  Noneffective 4 (2.1) 5 (2.4)   
  1. aEffective pain reduction is defined as a decrease in pain intensity > 25%, compared with the baseline (T1). Noneffective is defined as a decrease in pain intensity < 25%, compared with the baseline (T1)
  2. bGroup E (n = 209) was treated with nalbuphine hydrochloride diluted with saline to 1 mg/L.
  3. cGroup C (n = 228) was administered tramadol hydrochloride diluted with saline to 10 mg/L.
  4. dT2: after administration at 30 min
  5. eT3: after administration at 2 h
  6. fT4: after administration at 4 h
  7. gT5: after administration at 6 h