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Table 2 Baseline and intraoperative variables

From: Intraoperative hypotension is associated with increased postoperative complications in patients undergoing surgery for pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma: a retrospective cohort study

VariablesWithout postoperative complications (n = 284)With postoperative complications (n = 43)P value a
Age (years)46 ± 1548 ± 160.379
Male gender b119 (41.9%)28 (65.1%)0.004
BMI (kg/m2)23.3 ± 3.523.2 ± 3.70.811
Preoperative comorbidity
 Diabetes mellitus38 (13.4%)12 (27.9%)0.014
 Coronary heart disease18 (6.3%)1 (2.3%)0.487
 Previous stroke9 (3.2%)7 (16.3%)0.002
ASA classification b  0.223
 114 (4.9%)2 (4.7%) 
 2210 (73.9%)26 (60.5%) 
 359 (20.8%)15 (34.9%) 
 41 (0.4%)0 (0.0%) 
Preoperative examination
 Hemoglobin (g/L)134 ± 18133 ± 240.851
 Serum catecholamine
  Dopamine (pmol/L)0.10 (0.05 to 0.31)0.10 (0.06 to 0.44)0.412
  Norepinephrine (pmol/L)11.7 (4.3 to 26.7)15.3 (4.9 to 33.1)0.397
  Epinephrine (pmol/L)0.45 (0.09 to 0.90)0.66 (0.28 to 1.20)0.100
 Maximal tumor diameter (cm) b,c5.3 ± 2.26.7 ± 3.20.012
 Paraganglioma b53 (18.7%)16 (37.2%)0.005
Preoperative antihypertensives
 α-AR antagonist d246 (86.6%)37 (86.0%)0.918
  Selective α1-AR antagonist144 (58.5%)20 (54.1%)0.607
 β-AR antagonist65 (22.9%)12 (27.9%)0.470
 Calcium channel blocker73 (25.7%)20 (46.5%)0.005
 Combined b83 (29.2%)22 (51.2%)0.004
Intravenous fluid140 (49.6%)22 (51.2%)0.853
Preoperative SBP (mmHg)125 ± 17131 ± 130.040
Preoperative DBP (mmHg)77 ± 1281 ± 100.025
Preoperative HR (bpm)74 ± 1178 ± 90.020
Period of surgery b  0.005
 2005–200965 (22.9%)7 (16.3%) 
 2010–201361 (21.5%)19 (44.2%) 
 2014–2017158 (55.6%)17 (39.5%) 
Duration of anesthesia (min)214 ± 82308 ± 148< 0.001
Type of anesthesia b  0.055
 General188 (66.2%)22 (51.2%) 
 Combined epidural-general e96 (33.8%)21 (48.8%) 
Duration of surgery (min) b129 ± 75223 ± 148< 0.001
Type of surgery b  0.015
 Open89 (31.3%)23 (53.5%) 
 Laparoscopic192 (67.6%)20 (46.5%) 
 Transurethral3 (1.1%)0 (0.0%) 
Estimated blood loss (ml)100 (50 to 300)500 (100 to 1800)< 0.001
Minimal hemoglobin (g/L)110 ± 2296 ± 220.001
Blood transfusion b,f37 (13.0%)20 (46.5%)< 0.001
Positive fluid balance (ml)2200 (1500 to 3025)3150 (2350 to 5475)0.001
Use of antihypertensives243 (85.6%)41 (95.3%)0.077
Combined antihypertensives b,g173 (60.9%)34 (79.1%)0.021
Use of vasopressors b129 (45.4%)33 (76.7%)< 0.001
Combined vasopressors h46 (16.2%)16 (37.2%)0.001
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD, number (%), or median (interquartile range)
  2. BMI Body mass index, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, AR Adrenergic receptor, SBP Systolic blood pressure, DBP Diastolic blood pressure, HR Heart rate
  3. a Comparison between patients with or without postoperative complications
  4. b Variables adjusted in the multivariate model
  5. c Confirmed by postoperative pathologic examination results
  6. d Including phenoxybenzamine, doxazosin and terazosin. Forty four patients did not receive α-AR antagonist therapy due to normal blood pressure and serum catecholamine level before surgery. Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was confirmed by postoperative pathologic examination
  7. e These patients also received postoperative patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA)
  8. f Includes packed red blood cell, fresh frozen plasma, and/or concentrated platelet
  9. g Combined use of two or more intravenous antihypertensive drugs, including phentolamine, urapidil, nicardipine and/or esmolol
  10. h Combined use of two or more intravenous vasopressors, including phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and/or epinephrine