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Table 2 The characteristics of oxygen saturation and heart rate in recruited subjects

From: A preliminary assessment of vital-signs-integrated patient-assisted intravenous opioid analgesia (VPIA) for postsurgical pain

ParametersNo. of patients 
Incidence of oxygen desaturation Percentage % (95% CI)
At least one episode SpO2 < 95%19100
 SpO2 < 95% persisted for > 60 s1368.4 (46.0–84.6)
 SpO2 < 95% persisted for > 3 min842.1 (23.1–63.7)
 SpO2 < 95% persisted for > 5 min631.6 (15.4–54.0)
  Median [IQR]
Post-surgery 0 h until the removal of pump
 Total time spent of SpO2 < 95%, min 35.3 [6.8–73.8]
 The % of time of SpO2 < 95% 1.9 [0.4–4.2]
0–4 h post-surgery
 Total time spent of SpO2 < 95%, min 2.1 [0.2–9.2]
 The % of time of SpO2 < 95% 0.87 [0.07–3.8]
>  4 h post-surgery
 Total time spent of SpO2 < 95%, min 26.8 [2.7–68.8]
 The % of time of SpO2 < 95% 1.4 [0.3–3.4]
Incidence of bradycardia Percentage % (95% CI)
 At least one episode of HR < 60/min19100
 HR < 60/min persisted for > 60 s315.8 (5.5–37.6)
 HR < 60/min persisted for > 3 min15.3 (1.0% - 24.6)
 HR < 60/min persisted for > 5 min15.3 (1.0% - 24.6)