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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Sevoflurane versus PRopofol combined with Remifentanil anesthesia Impact on postoperative Neurologic function in supratentorial Gliomas (SPRING): protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Inclusion Criteria
Patients aged between 18 to 65 years old with American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) status I ~ II who are scheduled for elective craniotomy for the treatment of supratentorial gliomas must fulfill the following:
1Frontal-Parietal-Temporal glioma diagnosed by preoperative MRI
2Glasgow score of 15 without preoperative symptomatic elevated intracranial pressure
3New and/or recurrent intracranial gliomas are allowed
Exclusion Criteria
1Unable to comprehend and cooperate with the neurologic examination
2Emergency craniotomy or changed to emergency from elective craniotomy
3Insular lobe is invaded by glioma
4Scheduled intraoperative motor evoked potential monitoring
5Patients with traumatic brain injury, intracerebral hemorrhage, or cerebral vascular diseases
6Patients with prolonged emergence, postoperative mechanical ventilation, and/or sedation dependence due to a definite reason (e.g., surgery itself or tumor location)
7Hypothalamic dysfunction
8Radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy before surgery
9Uncontrolled hypertension or severe heart disease that impairs cardiac function (New York Heart Association Functional Classification ≥ III)
10History of related anesthetic allergy
11Severe endocrine system dysfunction that impair metabolic index
12Impaired mental status
13Drug and/or alcohol abuse
14Pregnant and/or lactation period patients
15Neuromuscular diseases
16Infectious and/or immune diseases with positive biomarker(s)
17Body mass index > = 35