Skip to main content

Table 3 Inclusion and exclusion criteria and baseline characteristics of participants

From: Efficacy and safety of pulsed radiofrequency as a method of dorsal root ganglia stimulation for treatment of non-neuropathic pain: a systematic review

IDInclusion criteria / Previous treatmentExclusion criteriaBaseline characteristics
Low back pain
Holanda 2016 [14]- low back pain for > 3 months- cancer in lumbar region
- coagulation disturbance
- infection
- neurologic deficits
PRF treatment group:
- 2 males, 9 females
- age range: 42–86 years
- pain duration range: 3–144 months
Lidocaine injection group:
- 3 males, 4 females
- age range: 33–82 years
- pain duration range: 3–48 months
Laser treatment group:
- 3 males, 7 females
- age range: 35–84 years
- pain duration range: 14–120 months
Lee 2018 [15]- age 20 years or older
- predominantly axial low back pain for > 3 months
- medication therapy for > 3 months without benefit
- physical rehabilitation for > 3 months without benefit
- an identified etiology of low back pain (i.e., grade II or III spondylolisthesis)
- positive response to previous spine interventions such as epidural steroids or sacroiliac joint blocks
- previous facet interventions, lumbar spine fusion
- untreated coagulopathy
- concomitant medical (e.g., unstable angina or degenerative osteoarthritis of knee), or psychiatric
conditions
- concurrent lumbar pain generator (i.e., muscular/fascial pain, or organs within the
abdominal cavity) that could confound the diagnosis of low back pain
TFESI DRG block + PRF treatment group:
- median age: 74 years, range 53–90 years
- median duration of symptoms: 26 months, range: 3–58 months
PRF treatment alone group:
- median age: 75 years, range 33–93 years
- median duration of symptoms: 25 months, range: 3–125 months
Yang 2010 [16]- chronic LBP with focal neurologic symptoms for > 3 months- spinal disorders
- coagulopathy
- concomitant medical or psychiatric illness
PaMNI group:
- 5 males, 11 females
- mean age: 55.5 ± 13.9 years
Fluoroscopy group:
- 2 males, 11 females
- mean age: 57.2 ± 14.7 years
Hsu 2017 [17]- age 20 years or older
- LBP for > 6 months that worsened upon prolonged sitting or standing
- failed to improve after at least 3 months of conservative treatment
- sagittal imbalance
- spinal listhesis
- infection
- tumor
- stenosis
- disc herniation causing nerve root compression
- 29 males, 55 females
- mean age: 56.03 ± 9.04 years
Tsou 2010 [18]- chronic LBP with or without lower-limb pain for > 6 months
- conservative treatment for > 3 months without benefit
- participants with symptoms of nerve root compromise due to mild or moderate bulging disc also included
Not givenLBP without lower limb pain group:
- 26 males, 23 females
- men age: 62.94 ± 12.39 years
- level treated: L2: 49
LBP with lower limb pain group:
- 33 males, 45 females
- men age: 63.88 ± 14.00 years
- levels treated: L2: 78, L3: 14, L4: 33, L5: 72, S1: 21
Postsurgical pain
Albayrak 2017 [19]- VAS score of ≥3 during activity
- pain lasting for ≥2 months
- no improvement with physical medicine and rehabilitation
- refractory to pharmacological therapies including paracetamol 2 g/day and the maximum tolerable dose of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for 1 week and pregabalin 300 mg/day for 2 weeks
- any pathological features, such as acute strain or sprain
- stroke/central nervous system disease
- serious psychiatric disorders
- sciatic pain
- fibromyalgia
- mental impairment affecting ability to understand tests/measures
PRF + TENS + exercise group:
- 2 (9.1%) males, 20 (90.9%) females
- mean age: 62.1 ± 4.9 years
TENS + exercise group:
- 2 males (11.8%), 15 (88.2%) females
- mean age: 65.8 ± 6.5 years
Cohen 2006 [20]- age 18 years or older
- duration of pain ≥3 months
- VAS score ≥ 5
- pain deemed to be of neuropathic origin based on history and physical examination
- presence of pathology that could account for a majority of persistent symptoms (e.g. recurrent cancer)
- untreated coagulopathy
- unstable medical or psychiatric condition
PRF treatment group:
- 6 males, 7 females
- mean age: 45.8 ± 4.7 years
Intercostal nerve stimulation:
- 7 males, 8 females
- mean age: 50.8 ± 4.0 years
Medical management group:
- 9 males, 12 females
- mean age: 48.6 ± 2.4 years
Fam 2018 [21]- between 18 and 65 years
- refractory to morphine sulfate (MST) and pregabalin
- bleeding tendency
- local infection at the site of the intervention
- psychological disorders
- disturbed anatomy (congenital, traumatic, and postsurgical)
- allergy to used medication (local anesthetics and contrast)
- inability to lie comfortably during the intervention as the cardiopulmonary distress
Not given
Pain associated with herpes zoster
Kim 2017 [6]- participants who underwent the procedure between 30 and 180 days after zoster onset- trigeminal-nerve-involved zoster
- follow-up loss within 6 months after the procedure
- participants who did not receive appropriate antiviral treatment during the acute phase of herpes zoster
- cases where both procedures were performed between 30 and 180 days of zoster onset
PRF treatment group:
- 11 males, 9 females
- mean age: 68.10 ± 7.99 years
- days from zoster onset: 68.20 ± 40.53
Continuous epidural block group:
- 6 males, 16 females
- mean age: 70.41 ± 10.25 years
- days from zoster onset: 74.09 ± 44.50
Cervicogenic headache
van Zundert 2003 [22]- 18 years or older
- chronic pain in the cervical region
for > 6 months
- pharmacotherapy, physical or manual therapy, TENS, and/or rehabilitation program without benefit
- temporary pain relief of at least 50% on 7-point Likert scale after a diagnostic segmental nerve block
- ability to understand the information provided
- informed consent
- systemic disease
- tumor
- clinically demonstrable neurologic deficit
- signs of radicular compression
- 5 males, 13 females
- age range: 27–77 years
- duration of pain prior to treatment: <  1–40 years
- DRG level treated: C2: 4, C3: 2, C4: 2, C5: 4, C6: 3, C7: 3
Zhang 2011 [23]- initial diagnostic selective the greater occipital nerve blocks with 1.5% lidocaine
- pain relief of 90% or more lasting for at least 30 min.
NAPatient 1:
- 40-years-old woman
- pain lasting for 5 years
Patient 2:
- 66-years-old women
- pain lasting for 1 year
Complex regional pain syndrome
Albayrak 2016 [24]- no improvement with the combined use of medical therapy, physical therapy, and the rehabilitation programNAPatient 1:
- 69-years-old women
- 9 months of previous pain
Patient 2:
- 48-years-old women
Apiliogullari 2015 [25]NANA16-years-old girl
Intractable vertebral metastatic pain
Arai 2015 [26]- confirmed to have vertebral metastases by bone scintigraphy, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging
- systemic analgesics did not provide a sound pain relief
- neurological deficit
- coagulopathy
- significant cardiovascular disease
- 9 males, 6 females
- age range: 34–82 years
Scrotal and inguinal pain
Hofmeester 2013 [27]- an orchidopexy performed
- test block of the relevant DRG with 1 ml of levobupivacaine 0.25%
NA- 13-years-old boy
Occipital radiating pain in rheumatoid arthritis
Lee 2015 [28]- right 3rd occipital and right 4th,
- 5th, and 6th cervical medial branch blocks with levobupivacaine (0.3 mL; 0.75%) and triamcinolone (1 mg) were injected at each level
NA- 74-years-old female
- pain lasting for 2–3 years
Chronic migraine
Li 2018 [29]- failure of pharmacological therapy and stellate ganglion block
- diagnostic C2 block with 1 mL of 2% lidocaine with 75–100% pain relief for only 4 days
NA- 34-years-old female
- 10 years of chronic migraine
  1. Abbreviations: DRG dorsal root ganglion, LBP low back pain, NA not applicable, PaMNI system patient-mount navigated intervention, PRF pulsed radiofrequency, RF radiofrequency, TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, TFESI transforaminal epidural steroid injection, VAS visual analogue scale