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Table 2 Parameters of pulsed radiofrequency treatment of dorsal root ganglion

From: Efficacy and safety of pulsed radiofrequency as a method of dorsal root ganglia stimulation for treatment of non-neuropathic pain: a systematic review

Author and yearComparatorProtocol used for treatmentDevice usedPosition of the electrode
Low back pain
Holanda 2016 [14]PRF treatment and lidocaine injection vs. laser irradiationPulse width: 20 ms with wash-out period of 480 ms;
Frequency: 50 Hz;
Amplitude: 45 V;
Duration: 5 min (with wash out periods of 300 ms);
Temperature: 42 °C
150 mm RF probe with 5 mm active tip (company is not specified); COSMAN G4 pulse generator (Cosman Medical, Burlington, MA, USA).L2
Lee 2018 [15]Diagnostic block + PRFAmplitude: 100 V;
Duration: 240 s;
Temperature: 40–42 °C
20-gauge cannula and Cosman
Four-Electrode Radiofrequency Generator (G4) (Cosman Medical, Burlington, MA, USA).
L2 - L5 and S1
Yang 2010 [16]2 implantation techniquesNo stimulation parameters given22-gauge, SMK-C10 (Radionics Inc., Burlington, MA, USA). RF generator not specified.L4
Hsu 2017 [17]No comparatorFrequency: 2 Hz;
Amplitude: 45 V;
Duration: 120 s;
Temperature: 42 °C
10-cm 22-gauge sliced-tip cannula with 1 cm active tip (company is not specified); RF generator (Baylis Medical Company, Montreal, Canada).L2
Tsou 2010 [18]No comparatorFrequency: 2 Hz;
Amplitude: 45 V;
Duration: 120 s;
Temperature: 42 °C
10-cm, 22-gauge, curved-tip cannula with a 1 cm active tip electrode (company not specified); RF generator (Baylis Medical Co., Montreal, Canada).L2-L5 and S1
Postsurgical pain
Albayrak 2017 [19]TENS + exercise vs. TENS + exercise + PRFPulse width: 20 ms active and 480 ms silent periods;
Frequency: 2 Hz;
Amplitude: 45 V;
Duration: 120 s;
Temperature: 42 °C
22-gauge cannula (OWL RF cannula 100 mm) with 5 mm active tip electrode (Diros Technology Inc., Canada); NeuroTherm 1100 RF generator (NeuroTherm, Wilmington, MA, USA).L4
Cohen 2006 [20]Intercostal nerve stimulation and medical managementPulse width: 20 ms in 1 s cycle;
Frequency: 2 Hz;
Amplitude: 45 V;
Duration: 120 s;
Temperature: 42 °C.
The procedure was repeated 4 times, for a total duration of 8 min.
10 cm electrode with a 5 mm active tip (PMC22–100-5, Baylis Medical, Montreal, Quebec, Canada); PMG-115-TD, V2.0A RF generator (Baylis Medical Company, Montreal, Canada).Exact DRGs are not specified
Fam 2018 [21]No comparatorDuration: 120 s;
Temperature: 42 °C
2 cycles performed
22-gauge, 10 cm, curved cannula with 10 mm active tip (Baylis Medical Company, Montreal, Canada). RF generator used not reported.T2 and T3
Pain associated with herpes zoster
Kim 2017 [6]Continuous epidural block (ropivacaine)Pulse width: 20 ms;
Frequency: 2 Hz;
Amplitude: 45 V;
Duration: 360 s;
Temperature: 42 °C
22-gauge 10 cm electrode with 10 mm active tip (Radionics Inc., Burlington, MA, USA); RF generator not specified.Cervical, thoracic, lumbosacral (exact DRGs not specified)
Cervicogenic headache
van Zundert 2003 [22]No comparatorPulse width: 20 ms;
Amplitude: 45 V;
Duration: 120 s (20 ms current and 480 ms without current);
Temperature: 42 °C
54 mm, 22-gauge SMK Pole needle with 4 mm active tip (Cotop International BV, Amsterdam, Netherlands); RFG 3C Plus RF generator (Radionics Inc. Burlington, MA, USA).Cervical DRG
Zhang 2011 [23]No comparatorDuration: 360 s;
Temperature: 42 °C
Information not given.C2
Complex regional pain syndrome
Albayrak 2016 [24]No comparatorPulse width: 20 ms active and 480 ms silent periods;
Frequency: 2 Hz;
Amplitude: 40 V;
Duration: 120 s;
Temperature: 42 °C
22-gauge cannula (OWL RF cannula 54 mm) with 4 mm active tip electrode (Diros Technology Inc., Canada); NeuroTherm 1100 RF generator (NeuroTherm, Wilmington, MA, USA).C5 and C6
Apiliogullari 2015 [25]No comparatorPulse width: 20 ms active and 480 ms silent periods;
Frequency: 2 Hz;
Amplitude: 45 V;
Duration: 120 s;
Temperature: 42 °C
22-gauge cannula (OWL RF cannula 54 mm) with 4 mm active tip electrode (Diros Technology Inc., Canada); NeuroTherm 1100 RF generator (NeuroTherm, Wilmington, MA, USA).L4 and L5
Intractable vertebral metastatic pain
Arai 2015 [26]No comparatorPulse width: 20 ms active and 480 ms silent periods;
Frequency: 2 Hz;
Amplitude: 40 V;
Duration: 120 s;
Temperature: 42 °C
5 mm active tip KT, guiding needle (Hakko Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan); RF generator JK-3 NeuroTherm (Morgan Automation Ltd., Liss, UK).On each metastatic vertebral body, L1–5 and Th 7, 9–12
Scrotal and inguinal pain
Hofmeester 2013 [27]No comparatorPulse width: 8 ms;
Frequency: 2 Hz;
Amplitude: 45 V;
Duration: 480 s;
Temperature: 42 °C
Information not given.T12, L1 and L2
Occipital radiating pain in rheumatoid arthritis
Lee 2015 [28]No comparatorDuration: 120 s, three cycles performed;
Temperature: 42 °C
21-gauge 10 cm insulated needle (company is not specified); RF generator not specified.C2
Chronic migraine
Li 2018 [29]No comparatorPulse width: 20 ms;
Frequency: 2 Hz;
Amplitude: 45 V;
Duration: 900 s;
Temperature: 42 °C
22-gauge needle, RF generator G4 (Cosman Medical, Burlington, MA, USA).C2
  1. Abbreviations: DRG dorsal root ganglion; PRF pulsed radiofrequency; RF radiofrequency