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Table 2 Univariate comparison of demographics and clinical characteristics for study cohort

From: Association of intraoperative hyperglycemia and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery: a multicenter retrospective study

 Blood Glucose <= 180 (N = 3600) n(%)Blood Glucose > 180 (N = 1414) n(%)P-value
Patient Demographics
 Age66.0 [57.0 to 74.0]65.0 [56.0 to 72.0]0.003
WHO BMI Classification  < 0.001
  Underweight75 (2.1)23 (1.6) 
  Normal818 (22.7)232 (16.4) 
  Overweight1063 (29.5)366 (25.9) 
  Obese1644 (45.7)793 (56.1) 
 Female Gender1628 (45.2)677 (47.9)0.090
 ASA Class 3 or 43184 (88.4)1265 (89.5)0.305
 Urgent/Emergent Case1334 (37.1)540 (38.2)0.455
Surgical Procedure Group  0.011
  General539 (15.0)201 (14.2) 
  Endocrine279 (7.8)131 (9.3) 
  Hepatobiliary382 (10.6)178 (12.6) 
  GI (Upper and Colorectal)1162 (32.3)478 (33.8) 
  Vascular1238 (34.4)426 (30.1) 
Pre-operative Clinical Characteristics
Pre-op Sepsis  0.005
  None3293 (91.5)1267 (89.6) 
  Sepsis145 (4.0)87 (6.2) 
  Severe Sepsis162 (4.5)60 (4.2) 
 Diabetes2151 (59.8)1080 (76.4)< 0.001
 Sleep Apnea729 (20.3)332 (23.5)0.012
 Cancer156 (4.3)56 (4.0)0.555
 CHF87 (2.4)25 (1.8)0.162
 COPD574 (15.9)216 (15.3)0.559
 CAD1270 (35.3)452 (32.0)0.026
 DVT/PEa392 (11.4)150 (11.0)0.711
 ETOH > 2 drinks/day in the 2 weeks prior to admission113 (3.1)32 (2.3)0.096
 Tobacco use within 1 year - cigarette1011 (28.1)356 (25.2)0.038
 Hypertension2708 (75.2)1123 (79.4)0.002
 Pneumonia53 (1.5)27 (1.9)0.266
 HbA1ca6.9 [6.1 to 8.2]8.0 [6.9 to 9.6]< 0.001
 Creatininea0.9 [0.7 to 1.2]0.9 [0.7 to 1.3]0.313
 Ascites77 (2.1)21 (1.5)0.132
 10% Loss of Body Weight 6 Months Before Surgery148 (4.1)55 (3.9)0.720
 Steroids/Immunosuppressive Meds for chronic condition220 (6.1)84 (5.9)0.820
 Currently Requires or is on Dialysis184 (5.1)39 (2.8)< 0.001
 Open Wound With or Without Infection502 (13.9)155 (11.0)0.005
 Peripheral Vascular Disease839 (23.3)330 (23.3)0.981
 Ventilator Dependent67 (1.9)29 (2.1)0.659
Intraoperative Characteristics
 Surgical Time (Minutes)149.0 [95.0 to 237.0]185.5 [107.0 to 288.0]< 0.001
 Insulin Given239 (6.6)788 (55.7)< 0.001
Outcomes
 30 Day Morbidity and Mortalitya1109 (30.9)538 (38.1)< 0.001
 Infectious Complications622 (17.3)287 (20.3)0.013
  1. Data are presented as frequency (%) or median [25th percentile to 75th percentile], as appropriate
  2. aPercentages for diabetic/non-diabetic are given as percent of the non-missing number of values in that group