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Table 4. Relative heart rate change (heart rate immediately after each intervention divided by heart rate immediately before each intervention) during each intervention (insertion or injection) following application of ice or lidocaine 5% gel (n = 27)

From: Ice versus lidocaine 5% gel for topical anaesthesia of oral mucosa – a randomized cross-over study

Intervention/variable measured
(application time)
Ice
mean ± SD
Lidocaine 5% gel
mean ± SD
Paired t-test
(p-value)
HR change buccal needle insertion
(1 min)
0.99 ± 0.040.98 ± 0.040.665
HR change buccal needle insertion
(2.5 min)
0.99 ± 0.061.00 ± 0.040.506
HR change buccal needle insertion
(5 min)
1.00 ± 0.071.00 ± 0.040.706
HR change buccal injection1.00 ± 0.071.02 ± 0.080.210
  1. HR heart rate
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