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Table 1 Questions answered by the patient, following the flowchart presented in Fig. 1. For evaluation of the palatal site, only questions 4–9 were used

From: Ice versus lidocaine 5% gel for topical anaesthesia of oral mucosa – a randomized cross-over study

1. How painful was the needle stick at 1 min?a
2. How painful was the needle stick at 2.5 min?a
3. How painful was the needle stick at 5 min?a
4. How painful was the injection?a
5. How did the topical anaesthesia feel?b
6. What’s your opinion of the taste of the topical anaesthesia?c
7. Did you feel any discomfort or irritation in the area treated with topical anaesthesia?d
8. If you answered yes to Question 7, please describe what you felt.
9. Please write something more about what you thought of the pre-treatment with gel or ice.
  1. aAnswered on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) with the extremes ‘no pain’ and ‘worst possible pain’
  2. bAnswered on a 100 mm VAS with the extremes ‘no discomfort’ and ‘worst possible discomfort’
  3. cAnswered with the alternatives ‘very good’, ‘good’, ‘no taste’, ‘bad’, ‘very bad’
  4. dAnswered with the alternatives ‘yes’ or ‘no’