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Table 4 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Induction techniques that reduce redistribution hypothermia: a prospective, randomized, controlled, single blind effectiveness study

Inclusion criteria
Age 18 to 55 years inclusive
Scheduled for general anesthesia where 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen would be used
Endotracheal intubation or laryngeal mask airway insertion would be used
Afebrile (preoperative oral or temporal scan temperature between 36.2 and 37.4 °C inclusive)
Positioned supine or lithotomy
Forced air warming would be used
Expected duration of anesthetic to be at least 60 min
Exclusion criteria
Emergency surgery or any other aspiration risk
Age < 18 years or > 55 years
Febrile illness
Anticipated difficult airway
Contraindication to nitrous oxide use
Contraindication to nasal instrumentation
Nasal surgery
Current or recent epistaxis
Requirement for foreign language interpreter
Allergy to propofol
Malignant hyperthermia risk
Inability to oxygenate on less than 50% oxygen
Cardiac surgery
Receiving vasoactive infusions
Significant valvular heart disease
Unstable cardiac disease
Requiring prone or lateral positioning
Inability to provide informed consent
Inability to use forced air warming
Untreated hypo- or hyper-thyroidism
ASA class 4, 5 or 6a
Anticipated inability to tolerate any of the 4 different anesthetic induction options in this study
  1. aPatients with end stage renal disease on dialysis were classified as ASA 3