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Table 1 Characteristics of septic patients classified according to developing secondary infection or not

From: Clinical characteristics, risk factors, immune status and prognosis of secondary infection of sepsis: a retrospective observational study

  With secondary infection n = 92 Without secondary infection n = 205 P value
Baseline characteristics
 Age, median (25th,75th) 66.5 (53.5–78.8) 65 (52.3–75) 0.323
   > 65 years, n (%) 50 (54.3) 105 (51.2) 0.618
 Men, n (%) 63 (68.5) 132 (64.4) 0.493
 Comorbidities, n (%)
  None 16 (17.4) 40 (19.5) 0.666
  Hypertension 42 (45.7) 82 (40) 0.361
  Other cardiovascular diseasesa 15 (16.3) 25 (12.2) 0.337
  Diabetes mellitus 23 (25) 46 (22.4) 0.629
  Cerebrovascular diseases 6 (6.5) 13 (6.3) 0.953
  Respiratory diseases 9 (9.8) 23 (11.2) 0.712
  Hepatitis and cirrhosis 3 (3.3) 10 (4.9) 0.761
  Renal insufficiency 4 (4.3) 15 (7.3) 0.334
  Malignancy 8 (8.7) 17 (8.3) 0.908
  Immunosuppression 12 (13) 24 (11.7) 0.744
 Smoker, n (%) 32 (34.8) 69 (33.7) 0.85
Site of infection, n (%)
 Respiratory tract 70 (76.1) 146 (71.2) 0.384
 Abdomen 15 (16.3) 47 (22.9) 0.194
 Urinary tract 8 (8.7) 14 (6.8) 0.57
 Skin and soft tissue 6 (6.5) 6 (2.9) 0.203
 Blood stream 2 (2.2) 2 (1) 0.59
 More than one sites 8 (8.7) 13 (6.3) 0.464
In shock on admission, n (%) 28 (30.4) 49 (22.4) 0.235
Severity of disease, median (25th,75th)
 APACHE II score 17 (9.25–22) 11 (7–18) 0.001
 SOFA score 4 (3–8) 4 (2.5–6) 0.007
Monocyte HLA-DR expression (%)b
 Day 1, mean (SD) 31.6 (14.3) 34.5 (14.9) 0.364
 Day 3, median (25th,75th) 28.6 (18.8–42) 41.1 (27.5–50.4) 0.048
 Day 7, median (25th,75th) 29.6 (14.3–35.1) 33.2 (13.8–65.4) 0.722
Levels of serum cytokines (pg/ml)b
 Day 1, median (25th,75th)
  IL-6 26.8 (13.6–363.5) 21.1 (7.5–58.2) 0.025
  IL-8 36.3 (18.7–70) 22.9 (12–77.5) 0.375
  IL-10 8.6 (5.4–24) 10 (9.3–17.8) 0.121
 Day 3, median (25th,75th)    
  IL-6 628.5 (23.5–1694.5) 640.5 (17.8–942.3) 0.478
  IL-8 29.89 (20–106) 8 (4.9–15.6) < 0.001
  IL-10 21.7 (6.4–35.3) 14.6 (5–27.7) 0.303
 Day 7
  IL-6, median (25th,75th) 921 (652–1377) 754 (584–1004) 0.226
  IL-8, median (25th,75th) 11.1 (6–41.8) 12.5 (5.7–14) 0.79
  IL-10, mean (SD) 60.6 (47.3) 16.8 (10.4) 0.035
Interventions, n (%)c
 Glucocorticoid 46 (50) 80 (39) 0.077
 Anticoagulation therapy 33 (35.9) 66 (32.2) 0.535
 Mechanical ventilation 68 (74) 104 (50.7) < 0.001
 Urinary catheterization 72 (78.3) 83 (40.5) < 0.001
 Deep venous catheterization 66 (71.7) 74 (36.1) < 0.001
 Continuous renal replacement therapy 11 (12) 19 (9.3) 0.477
 Blood transfusion 25 (27.2) 30 (14.6) 0.011
LOS (days), median (25th,75th)
 In-hospital 23.5 (12–34) 22 (10–32.5) < 0.001
 ICU 11 (7–17) 11 (6–16.5) < 0.001
Mortality, n (%)
 In-hospital 42 (45.7) 52 (25.4) 0.001
 30-day 32 (34.8) 48 (23.4) 0.041
 90-day 39 (42.4) 52 (25.4) 0.003
  1. aOther cardiovascular diseases included coronary heart disease, arrhythmia, myocardiosis and valvular heart disease
  2. bData of 89, 77 and 21 patients were available for HLA-DR expression at day 1, 3 and 7 respectively, in which 35, 34 and 12 patients developed secondary infection. And data of 87, 38 and 18 patients were available for cytokines at day 1, 3 and 7 respectively, in which 33, 18 and 8 patients developed secondary infection
  3. cIn the group of secondary infection, it referred to the interventions before the onset of secondary infection