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Table 2 Baseline characteristics

From: Cardioprotective effect of remote ischemic preconditioning with postconditioning on donor hearts in patients undergoing heart transplantation: a single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial

  RIPC+RIPostC (n = 60) Control (n = 60) P value
Demographics
 Age (years) 46.5 ± 16.2 47.1 ± 12.4 0.983
 Male 45 (75.0%) 44 (73.3%) 0.835
 BMI 21.6 ± 3.7 21.4 ± 3.2 0.990
Distribution of primary diseases
 Coronary heart diseases 10(16.7%) 9(15%) 0.803
 Cardiomyopathy    
  Dilated cardiomyopathy 29(48.3%) 32(53.3%) 0.584
  Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 5(8.3%) 7(11.7%) 0.543
  Restrictive cardiomyopathy 3(5%) 3(5%) 1
  ARVC 6(10%) 3(5%) 0.488
  Alcoholic cardiomyopathy 1(1.7%) 1(1.7%) 1
  Peripartum cardiomyopathy 0 1(1.7%) 1
 Noncompaction of ventricular myocardium 2(3.3%) 1(1.7%) 1
 Valvular heart disease 3(5.0%) 2(3.3%) 1
 Behcet disease 1(1.7%) 0 1
 Myocarditis 0 1(1.7%) 1
Risk factors and comorbidities
 Hypertension 7 (11.7%) 6 (10%) 0.518
 Diabetes mellitus 13 (21.7%) 10 (16.7%) 0.487
 Hypercholesterolemia 12 (20%) 12 (20%) 1
 Previous myocardial infarction 6 (10%) 4 (6.7%) 0.509
 Previous stroke 6 (10%) 6 (10%) 1
 Previous atrial fibrillation 20 (33.3%) 20 (33.3%) 1
 Previous cardiac surgery 6 (10%) 8 (13.3%) 0.570
Cardiac status
 Left-ventricular ejection fraction (%)
   > 55% 4(6.7%) 3(5%) 1
  35–55% 8(13.3%) 12(20%) 0.327
   < 35% 47(78.3%) 45(75%) 0.666
  Previous pacemaker 18(30%) 16(26.7%) 0.685
Preoperative medication
 Warfarin 8(13.3%) 12(20%) 0.327
 β blocker 50(83.3%) 52(86.7%) 0.609
 Lipid-lowering agent 3(5%) 8(13.3%) 0.114
 ACE inhibitors or ARB 30(50%) 11(18.3%) < 0.001
 Aldosterone receptor blocker 46(76.7%) 57(95%) 0.803
 Digitalis 16(26.7%) 49(81.7%) < 0.001
 Nitrates 5(8.3%) 12(20%) 0.670
 Anti-diabetic drugs 6(10%) 8(13.3%) 0.570
 Inotropic drugs 23(38.3%) 46(76.7%) < 0.001
  1. Data are mean ± SD or number (%)
  2. BMI body mass index, ARVC arrythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, ACE angiotensin converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin-II-receptor blocker, NYHA New York Heart Association, RIPC remote ischemic preconditioning, RIPostC remote ischemic postconditioning