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Table 2 Summary of effect estimates for primary and secondary outcomes in the primary meta-analysis

From: Propofol vs. inhalational agents to maintain general anaesthesia in ambulatory and in-patient surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Outcome No. of studies No. of patients Effect measure (statistical model) Effect estimate (95% CI) Effect
Haemodynamic instability 14 1327 RR (M-H, FE) 1.01 [0.86, 1.19] NS
Accidental awakenings 3 350 RR (M-H, FE) 1.36 [0.64, 2.89] NS
Muscle relaxant consumption 11 821 Std. MD (IV, FE) 0.18 [0.04, 0.32] I
Agitation on emergence 6 923 RR (M-H, FE) 0.91 [0.61, 1.34] NS
Time to awakening (min) 40 3064 MD (IV, RE) −0.01 [− 0.71, 0.68] NS
Time to respiratory recovery (min) 20 2622 MD (IV, RE) 0.82 [0.20, 1.45] I
Time to orientation (min) 20 1738 MD (IV, RE) 1.35 [−0.12, 2.82] NS
Time to reach a recovery score (min) 12 2114 MD (IV, RE) 0.13 [−1.09, 1.35] NS
Time to follow simple instructions (min) 23 2497 MD (IV, RE) 0.46 [−0.39, 1.30] NS
Time to tracheal extubation (min) 61 5773 MD (IV, RE) 0.70 [0.03, 1.38] I
Post-anaesthetic shivering 23 3382 RR (M-H, FE) 1.06 [0.92, 1.22] NS
PONV 65 7043 RR (M-H, RE) 0.61 [0.53, 0.69] P
Pain score - After tracheal extubation 27 2631 MD (IV, RE) −0.51 [−0.81, −0.20] P
Pain score - 12 to 24 h after tracheal extubation 18 1836 MD (IV, RE) −0.14 [− 0.31, 0.03] NS
Analgesic consumption 40 4192 Std. MD (IV, RE) 0.20 [0.03, 0.37] I
PACU time (min) 21 2653 MD (IV, RE) −2.91 [−5.47, −0.35] P
Cognitive assessment scales 7 387 Std. MD (IV, RE) 0.45 [−0.15, 1.05] NS
Post-operative cognitive dysfunction 4 674 RR (M-H, FE) 1.14 [0.86, 1.51] NS
Patients satisfied 10 924 RR (M-H, FE) 1.06 [1.01, 1.10] P
Satisfaction score 5 967 Std. MD (IV, FE) 0.13 [0.00, 0.26] P
Grade 3–4 adverse event 14 2046 RR (M-H, FE) 1.04 [0.76, 1.42] NS
Hospital mortality 11 1427 RR (M-H, FE) 0.78 [0.40, 1.53] NS
Hospital LOS (days) 30 2837 MD (IV, RE) 0.18 [−0.16, 0.53] NS
  1. Abbreviations: PONV post-operative nausea and vomiting, PACU post-anaesthesia care unit, LOS length of stay, CI confidence interval, RR relative risk, MD mean difference, Std. MD standardized mean difference, M-H Mantel-Haenzsel, FE fixed effects, IV inverse variance, RE random effects, P in favour of propofol, I in favour of inhalational agents, NS not significant