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Table 1 Comparison of preoperative and intraoperative variables before and after propensity score matching between sevoflurane group and propofol group

From: Effects of sevoflurane and propofol on the development of pneumonia after esophagectomy: a retrospective cohort study

Variables Total Before Matching After Matching
  (n = 1659) Group S (n = 1571) Group P (n = 88) P-value Group S (n = 78) Group P (n = 78) P-value
Age (years) 60.7 ± 8.4 60.7 ± 8.4 61.0 ± 8.1 0.740 60.9 ± 8.0 60.7 ± 8.1 0.890
Male 1383 (83.4) 1304 (83.0) 79 (89.8) 0.097 65 (83.3) 69 (88.5) 0.357
BMI (kg∙m−2) 23.6 ± 3.2 23.7 ± 3.2 23.3 ± 3.4 0.251 23.2 ± 3.4 23.2 ± 3.5 0.926
ASA ≥ III 209 (12.6) 206 (13.1) 3 (3.4) 0.008 2 (2.6) 2 (2.6) 1.000
Hypertension 416 (25.1) 338 (24.7) 28 (31.8) 0.134 12 (15.4) 22 (28.2) 0.052
Diabetes mellitus 117 (7.1) 105 (6.7) 12 (13.6) 0.013 6 (7.7) 6 (7.7) 1.000
Coronary artery disease 75 (4.5) 69 (4.4) 6 (6.8) 0.286 2 (2.6) 2 (2.6) 1.000
Alcohol use 972 (58.6) 917 (58.4) 55 (62.5) 0.444 43 (55.1) 46 (59.0) 0.628
Smoking history 1071 (64.6) 1009 (64.2) 62 (70.5) 0.235 47 (60.3) 55 (70.5) 0.178
Preoperative chemoradiotherapy 130 (7.8) 128 (8.1) 2 (2.3) 0.046 3 (3.8) 2 (2.6) 0.649
Preoperative Laboratory
 GLU (mmol/L) 5.5 ± 1.0 5.5 ± 1.0 5.4 ± 1.0 0.503 5.3 ± 0.7 5.4 ± 0.9 0.570
 Cr (μmol/L) 75.9 ± 14.1 75.8 ± 14.1 77.4 ± 13.6 0.319 76.7 ± 12.5 77.1 ± 13.9 0.832
 ALB (g/L) 43.9 ± 3.3 43.9 ± 3.3 43.8 ± 3.3 0.599 43.6 ± 3.4 43.6 ± 3.2 0.930
 Hct (%) 42.4 ± 4.5 42.4 ± 4.5 42.6 ± 4.0 0.766 42.6 ± 3.5 42.6 ± 4.0 0.990
Total fluids (mL) 2657 ± 761 2649 ± 761 2809 ± 747 0.054 2710 ± 698 2736 ± 692 0.818
Total crystalloid (mL) 1896 ± 615 1881 ± 613 2160 ± 593 <0.001 2071 ± 561 2100 ± 529 0.736
Total colloid (mL) 668 ± 375 672 ± 380 585 ± 265 0.004 603 ± 305 577 ± 268 0.578
Operation time (min) 249 ± 95 248 ± 95 255 ± 90 0.537 262 ± 88 245 ± 80 0.212
Intraoperative hypotension a 275 (16.6) 266 (16.9) 9 (10.2) 0.100 8 (10.3) 9 (11.5) 0.797
Intraoperative hypoxemia b 227 (13.7) 214 (13.6) 13 (14.8) 0.760 11 (14.1) 11 (14.1) 1.000
Blood transfusion 225 (13.6) 216 (13.7) 9 (10.2) 0.348 5 (6.4) 7 (9.0) 0.548
Tumor location     0.002    0.876
 Upper third 161 (9.7) 155 (9.9) 6 (6.8)   3 (3.8) 5 (6.4)  
 Middle third 729 (43.9) 686 (43.7) 43 (48.9)   39 (50.0) 38 (48.7)  
 Lower third 449 (27.1) 415 (26.4) 34 (38.6)   32 (41.0) 30 (38.5)  
 Gastroesophageal junction 320 (19.3) 315 (20.1) 5 (5.7)   4 (5.1) 5 (6.4)  
Tumor histology     0.116    0.585
 Adenocarcinoma 378 (22.8) 365 (23.2) 13 (14.8)   12 (15.4) 13 (16.7)  
 Squamous 1177 (70.9) 1106 (70.4) 71 (80.7)   60 (76.9) 62 (79.5)  
 Other 104 (6.3) 100 (6.4) 4 (4.5)   6 (7.7) 3 (3.8)  
Tumor stage     0.085    0.346
 I 302 (18.2) 292 (18.6) 10 (11.4)   10 (12.8) 8 (10.3)  
 II 486 (29.3) 450 (28.6) 36 (40.9)   27 (34.6) 31 (39.7)  
 III 714 (43.0) 677 (43.1) 37 (42.0)   31 (39.7) 35 (44.5)  
 IV 5 (0.3) 5 (0.3) 0 (0)   0 (0) 0 (0)  
 NA 152 (9.2) 147 (9.4) 5 (5.7)   10 (12.8) 4 (5.1)  
Minimally invasive approach 321 (19.3) 306 (19.5) 15 (17.0) 0.574 14 (17.9) 13 (16.7) 0.832
Surgical procedure     0.902    0.561
 Sweet 1136 (68.5) 1077 (68.6) 59 (67.0)   50 (64.1) 55 (70.5)  
 Ivor-Lewis 148 (8.9) 139 (8.8) 9 (10.2)   11 (14.1) 7 (9.0)  
 Three-incision 375 (22.6) 355 (22.6) 20 (22.7)   17 (21.8) 16 (20.5)  
Surgeon experience     <0.001    0.872
 High-volume c 1099 (66.2) 1058 (67.3) 41 (46.6)   35 (44.9) 36 (46.2)  
 Low-volume d 560 (33.8) 513 (32.7) 47 (53.4)   43 (55.1) 42 (53.8)  
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or number of patients (n, %)
  2. Abbreviations: S sevoflurane, P propofol, BMI body mass index, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologist, GLU glucose, Cr serum creatinine, ALB albumin, Hct hematocrit, NA not available
  3. aIntraoperative hypotension: lowest systolic blood pressure < 80 mmHg or use of any vasopressor during operation
  4. bIntraoperative hypoxemia: arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry <90%
  5. cHigh-volume: ≥100 esophagectomy in three years
  6. dLow-volume: <100 esophagectomy in three years