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Table 1 Included randomized controlled trials for effects of thoracic epidural analgesia on oxygenation and pulmonary shunt fraction during One-lung ventilation

From: The effects of thoracic epidural analgesia on oxygenation and pulmonary shunt fraction during one-lung ventilation: an meta-analysis

Study Participants Interventions Abstracted outcomes
Ozcan et al [5] 25 G-TIVA G-TIVA/ISO: induced: fentanyl (3 μg.kg−1), propofol (BIS < 45) , vecuronium (0.1 mg.kg−1) hemodynamic variables: HR, MAP; Intrapulmonary shunt: PvO2, PaO2,Qs/Qt
25G-TIVA-TEA Maintained: propofol or isoflurane respectively (according to BIS value)
25 G-ISO G-TIVA/ISO-TEA: T7-T8 epidural with initial 2 % lidocaine 2 mL ,0.1 % bupivacaine +0.1 mg.kg−1 morphine 10 mL, then induced the same as G-TIVA/ISO group
25 G-ISO-TEA Maintained: 0.1 % bupivacaine +0.1 mg.kg−1 morphine 7 ml.h-1, and maintained with propofol or isoflurane respectively (according to BIS value)
Garutti et al. [6] 30 G-TIVA G-TIVA: induced: fentanyl (3 μg.kg−1), midazolam (2-3 mg) , propofol (2 mg/kg), rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg) hemodynamic variables: HR, MAP; Intrapulmonary shunt: PvO2,PaO2,Qs/Qt,PaCO2, PH,SvO2,SaO2,CaO2,CvO2; Other: Hb, Paw
30 G-TIVA-TEA Maintained: fentanyl (3 μg.kg−1), propfol (6–7 mg.kg−1.h−1); rocuronium (0.5 mg.kg−1.h−1)
  G-TIVA-TEA: T6-T7 or T7-T8 epidural with initial 6–8 ml bupivacaine, then induced: same as G-TIVA group
Maintained: 0.375 % bupivacaine (6–7 mL.h−1), propofol (6–7 mg.kg−1.h−1), rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg)
Jung et al. [8] 13G-TIVA G-TIVA: induced: fentanyl (50–100 μg), propofol (4–5 μg/ml), vecuronium (0.1 mg.kg−1) hemodynamic variables: HR, MAP, CVP. MPAP, PAOP, CO, SVR, PVR; Intrapulmonary shunt: PvO2,PaO2,Qs/Qt,PaCO2, PH, SvO2,SaO2; Other: Hb, Paw
13G-TIVA-TEA-B Maintained: 20 μg/ml remifentanil, 0.2 ml.kg−1.h−1; vecuronium (2–2.5 mg..h−1), propofol (according to BIS)
13G-TIVA-TEA-S G-TIVA-TEA-B: T5-T6 or T6-T7 epidural with initial 10 ml 5 % bupivacaine, then induced: same as G-TIVA group.
Maintained: 0.25 % bupivacaine 0.1 ml.kg−1.h−1, propofol (6–7 mg.kg−1.h−1), vecuronium (2–2.5 mg..h−1), propofol (according to BIS)
G-TIVA-TEA-S: T5-T6 or T6-T7 epidural with initial 10 ml 50 μg sufentanil , then induced :same as G-TIVA group
Maintained: 1 μg/ml sufentanil 0.1 ml.kg−1.h−1), propofol (6–7 mg.kg−1.h−1), vecuronium (2–2.5 mg..h−1), propofol (according to BIS)
Garutti et al. [9] 37 G-TIVA G-TIVA: induced: fentanyl (3 μg.kg−1), midazolam (0.04 mg/kg), propofol (2 mg/kg), rocuronium (0.6 mg.kg−1) hemodynamic variables: HR, MAP; Intrapulmonary shunt: PvO2,PaO2,Qs/Qt,PaCO2, PH,SvO2,SaO2,CaO2,CvO2; Other: Hb, Paw
Maintained: fentanyl (2–3 μg.kg−1), propfol (6–7 mg.kg−1.h−1); rocuronium (0.5 mg.kg−1.h−1)
35 G-TIVA-TEA G-TIVA-TEA: T6-T7 or T7-T8 epidural with initial meperidine 2 mg.kg−1 diluted in avolume of 10–12 mL, then induced :same as G-TIVA group
Maintained: propofol (6–7 mg.kg−1.h−1), rocuronium(0.5 mg.kg−1.h−1)
Dossow et al. [10] 25 G-TIVA G-TIVA: induced: fentanyl (5–10 μg.kg−1), thiopental (3–5 mg.kg−1), panccuronium (0.1 mg.kg−1) hemodynamic variables; HR, MAP, PAOP, MPAP, CVP; Intrapulmonary shunt: PvO2,SVR,PVR
25 G-TIVA-TEA Maintained: fentanyl (5–10 μg.kg−1.h−1), propfol (6–10 mg.kg−1.h−1), panccuronium(0.05–0.15 mg.kg−1)
G-TIVA-TEA: T6–7 or T7–8 epidural with initial 0.5 % bupivacaine 15 mg, then induced the same as G-TIVA group
Maintained: 0.5 % bupivacaine (range 15–25 mg), propfol (6–10 mg.kg−1.h−1), panccuronium (0.05–0.15 mg.kg−1)
Feng Y et al. [11] 12G-TIVA G-TIVA: induced :fentanyl (3 μg.kg−1), propfol (1 mg.kg1) , Vecuronim (0.1 mg.kg−1) hemodynamic variables; HR, MAP, MPAP, CVP, CO; Intrapulmonary shunt: PaO2, PaCO2, Qs/Qt
Maintained: propfol (9–12 mg.kg−1.h−1), Vecuronim (0.1 mg.kg−1), T7–8 or T8–9 epidural with initial 1 % lidocaine 5 ml ,then maintained with normal saline 5 ml/h
12G-TIVA-TEA G-TIVA-TEA: T7–8 or T8–9 epidural with initial 0.5 % ropivacaine 7–9 ml, then induced the same as G-TIVA group.
Maintaine with epidural ropivacaine 3–5 ml.h−1 combined with propfol (4.8–7.2 mg.kg−1.h−1), Vecuronim (0.1 mg.kg−1)
Lu JH et al. [12] 10 G-SEV G-SEV: induced: fentanyl (100 μg ), propfol (2 mg.kg1), vecuronim (0.1 mg.kg−1) Intrapulmonary shunt: PaO2, PaCO2, PETCO2; Other: Hb, Paw
10 G-SEV-TEA Maintained: 0.5–1.3 MAC sevofrane, panccuronium (not mentioned)
G-SEV-TEA: T5–6 or T6–7 epidural with initial 1.0 % lidocaine 5 ml then induced as G-SEV.
Maintained: epidural with 1.0 % lidocaine 5 ml.45mins−1, combined with sevofrane(0.5–1.3MAC), panccuronium (not mentioned)
Wang et al. [13] 30 G-TIVA G-TIVA: induced: fentanyl (2 μg.kg−1), midazolam (0.1 mg.kg-1), propfol (1.2–2.0 mg.kg−1) , vecuronim (0.1 mg.kg−1) Intrapulmonary shunt: PaO2, PaCO2, Qs/Qt
30G-TIVA-TEA Maintained: fentanyl (0.2 μg.kg−1.h−1), propfol (3–6 mg.kg−1.h−1), vecuronium(0.05 mg.kg−1)
G-TIVA-TEA: T6–7 epidural with initial 1.0 % lidocaine 5 ml then induced as G- TIVA.
Maintained: epidural with 1.0 % lidocaine mixed with 0.25 % bupivacaine 5 ml.h−1, combined with propfol (3–6 mg.kg−1.h−1), vecuronium(0.05 mg.kg−1)
Wang et al. [14] 16 G-ISO G-ISO: induced: fentanyl (2 μg.kg−1), midazolam (0.1 mg.kg-1), propfol (1.0–2.0 mg.kg−1), vecuronim (0.16 mg.kg−1) hemodynamic variables: HR, MAP; Intrapulmonary shunt: PaO2, PaCO2, PvO2, Qs/Qt
14 G-ISO-TEA Maintained: isoflurane (2.0–4.0MAC), fentanyl (50 μg)
G-ISO-TEA: T6–7 or T7-8epidural with initial 2.0 % lidocaine 3 ml then induced as G- ISO.
Maintained: epidural with 0.5 % bupivacaine 5 ml.h−1, combined with propfol (4–6 mg.kg−1.h−1)
Wang et al. [15] 15 G-ISO G-ISO: induced: fentanyl (2 μg.kg−1), midazolam (0.05 mg.kg-1), propfol (1.5–2.0 mg.kg−1), vecuronim (0.1 mg.kg−1) hemodynamic variables: HR, MAP; Intrapulmonary shunt: PaO2/Fio2, Qs/Qt Other: Paw
15 G-ISO-TEA Maintained: isoflurane (0.5–1.3MAC), vecuronim (not mentioned)
G-ISO-TEA: T10–11 epidural with initial 0.5 % lidocaine then induced as G- ISO.
Maintained: epidural with 0.5 % lidocaine 5 ml.h−1, combined with isoflurane (0.5–1.3MAC), vecuronim (not mentioned)
Chen et al. [16] 13 G-TIVA G-TIVA: induced: fentanyl (3 μg.kg−1), midazolam (0.1 mg.kg-1), propfol (1.0–2.0 mg.kg−1), vecuronim (0.1 mg.kg−1) hemodynamic variables; HR, MAP; Intrapulmonary shunt: PaO2,PaCO2,PvO2,Qs/Qt, SvO2,SaO2,CaO2,CvO2, PETCO2, pH; Other: Paw
13G-TIVA-TEA Maintained: fentanyl (0.2 μg.kg−1.h−1), propfol (3–6 mg.kg−1.h−1), vecuronium(0.05 mg.kg−1)
G-TIVA-TEA: T6–7 epidural with initial 1.0 % lidocaine mixed with 0.375 % bupivacaine 8–10 ml then induced as G- TIVA.
Maintained: epidural with mixture of lidocaine and bupivacaine 5 ml.h−1, combined with propfol (3–6 mg.kg−1.h−1), vecuronium(0.05 mg.kg−1)
Wu et al. [17] 41G-TIVA G-TIVA: induced: midazolam (0.05 mg.kg-1), fentanil, propfol and vecuronim (no details) hemodynamic variables; HR, MAP; Intrapulmonary shunt: PaO2,PaCO2,Qs/Qt, pH
41G-TIVA-TEA Maintained: fentanil, propfol and vecuronium (no details, according to BIS).
G-TIVA-TEA: T5–6 or T6–7 epidural with initial 0.5 % ropivacaine 7–12 ml then induced as G- TIVA.
Maintained: epidural with 0.5 % ropivacaine 4–5 ml.h−1, combined with propfol and vecuronium (no details).
Zhang et al. [18] 43G-TIVA G-TIVA: induced: midazolam (0.05 mg.kg-1), fentanil, propfol and vecuronim (no details) hemodynamic variables; HR, MAP; Intrapulmonary shunt: PaO2,PaCO2,Qs/Qt,
43G-TIVA-TEA Maintained: fentanil, propfol and vecuronium (no details, according to BIS).
G-TIVA-TEA: T5–6 or T6–7 epidural with initial 0.5 % ropivacaine 7–12 ml then induced as G- TIVA.
Maintained: epidural with 0.5 % ropivacaine 4–6 ml.h−1, combined with propfol and vecuronium (no details).
Sun et al. [19] 12 G-ISO-TEA G-ISO-TEA and G-TIVA-TEA: induced: T7–8 or T8–9 epidural with initial 0.5 % ropivacaine 7–9 ml then induced with fentanyl (3 μg.kg−1), midazolam (2-3 mg), propfol (1.5 mg.kg−1), vecuronim (0.1 mg.kg−1) hemodynamic variables; HR, MAP,MPAP Intrapulmonary shunt: PaO2,PaCO2,Qs/Qt, pH
12 G-TIVA-TEA
Maintained: isoflurane and propfol respectively(no details, according to BIS).
  1. TEA thoracic epidural anesthesia with local anesthetic, opioids or both, TIVA total-intravenous anesthesia, ISO isoflurane inhalation anesthesia