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Table 3 Summary of key results from included studies evaluating local/regional analgesia techniques in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (a indicates laparoscopic or robotic approach)

From: Optimal pain management for radical prostatectomy surgery: what is the evidence?

Reference Intervention studied Pain scores Supplementary analgesia Time to first analgesic request
Epidural analgesia versus systemic analgesia
 Allaire 1992 [11] Epidural fentanyl versus morphine ↓↓ at rest - -
 Gupta 2004 [22] Epidural ropivacaine, fentanyl and adrenaline plus placebo via IV-PCA versus epidural placebo and morphine via IV-PCA ↓↓ at rest and on coughing - -
 Hohwü 2006 [27] Epidural ropivacaine versus bupivacaine infiltration + oral oxycodone NS - -
 Liu 1995 [31] Epidural hydromorphone versus hydromorphone via IV-PCA NS at rest and on coughing - -
Perioperative epidural analgesia versus postoperative epidural analgesia
 Gottschalk 1998 [20] Preemptive epidural fentanyl (4 μg/kg) versus preemptive epidural bupivacaine (5mg/ml) and postoperative morphine versus postoperative morphine and bupivacaine. All patients received postoperative epidural morphine (0.1mg/ml) and bupivacaine (0.5mg/mL) ↓↓ at rest in both preemptive groups ↓↓ in bupivacaine group only -
 Hong 2011 [28] Epidural ropivacaine versus epidural ropivacaine (3mg/ml) plus sufentanil (1 μg/ml) versus epidural placebo ↓ at rest ↓↓ -
Components of epidural analgesia
 Aribogan 2003 [13] Epidural combination of tramadol and bupivacaine versus tramadol only versus bupivacaine alone ↓↓ at rest ↓↓ -
 Heid 2007 [26] Epidural ropivacaine versus bupivacaine NS at rest and on coughing NS -
Epidural analgesia versus local infiltration analgesia
 Fant 2011 [18] Epidural ropivacaine and fentanyl versus ropivacaine via intra-abdominal catheter ↓↓ at rest and on coughing ↓↓ -
Intrathecal Opioids
 Andrieu 2009 [12] Intrathecal morphine 4 μg/kg versus morphine 4 μg/kg plus clonidine 1 μg/kg versus placebo ↓↓ at rest and on movement in both treatment groups for 18 h. Clonidine extended duration by 6 h. ↓↓
 Brown 2004 [16] Intrathecal morphine 0.2 mg and clonidine 75 μg ↓↓ ↓↓ -
 Nuri Deniz 2013 [56] Intrathecal morphine 0.2 mg ↓↓ ↓↓ -
Wound infiltration versus placebo
 Wu 2005 [43] Subfascial bupivacaine versus placebo NS at rest and on movement NS -
 Kristensen 2013 [61] subfascial bupivacaine versus placebo NS NS -
 Elkassabany 2013 [59] TAP block versus placebo ↓↓ ↓↓ -
Penile nerve block
 Weinberg 2014 [49] Dorsal penile nerve block with bupivacaine vs. placeboa NS NS -
Wound infiltration with magnesium
 Lee 2011 [46] Magnesium under remifentanil-based anaesthesia versus placebo under remifentanil-based anaesthesia magnesium under remifentanil-based anaesthesia versus placebo under desflurane-based anaesthesiaa ↓↓ on movement ↓↓ ↓↓
NS on movement NS NS
 Tauzin-Fin 2009 [42] Infiltration of ropivacaine plus magnesium versus infiltration of ropivacaine plus magnesium, IV NS at rest ↓↓ ↓↓
  1. NA not analyzed, NS no significant difference between groups
  2. - not reported
  3. ↓, decreased at a minority (50 % or less) of time points measured
  4. ↓↓, decreased at more than 50 % of time points measured