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Table 2 Demographic data of included studies

From: Nefopam for the prevention of perioperative shivering: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Study Surgical setting Type of anesthesia Comparisons (No. of patients) Time of administration Temperature
Piper 2004 [29] Orthopedic or abdominal General anesthesia Nefopam0.2 mg/kg (73); Nefopam0.1 mg/kg (75); Nefopam0.05 mg/kg (76); Clonidine1.5 μg/kg (73); Placebo (74) At the end of surgery Rectal temperature
Bilotta 2001 [33] Craniotomy General anesthesia Nefopam0.12 mg/kg (20); Placebo (20) At the end of surgery Bladder temperature
Piper 1999 [30] Abdominal or orthopedic General anesthesia Nefopam0.15 mg/kg (20); Clonidine3μg/kg (20); placebo (20) At the end of surgery Rectal temperature
Bilotta 2002 [13] Lower limb orthopedic Neuraxial anesthesia Nefopam0.15 mg/kg (30); Tramadol0.5 mg/kg (30); Placebo (30) Before anesthesia Urinary-bladder temperature
Bilotta 2005 [28] Interventional neuroradiology Conscious sedation Nefopam0.15 mg/kg (32); Clonidine3μg/kg (38); Placebo (31) Before anesthesia Bladder temperature
Rohm 2005 [27] Abdominal or urological General anesthesia Physostigmine2mg (31); Nefopam10mg (30); Placebo (28) At the end of surgery Tympanic temperature
Kamal 2011 [34] Orthopedic Neuraxial anesthesia Nefopam0.2 mg/kg (76); Ketamine + midazolam (75); placebo (75) Before anesthesia Tympanic temperature
Piper 1998 [31] Orthopedic or abdominal General anesthesia Nefopam0.15 mg/kg (15); Placebo (15) At the end of surgery Rectal temperature
Tempia 1992 [32] Radical cystectomy General anesthesia Nefopam (27); placebo (27) At the end of surgery Not mentioned