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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Significant association between vitamin D deficiency and sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Design Population characteristics Age Sepsis definition Vitamin D cut-off (ng/mL) Assay Participants (n) Time measure 25(OH)D (ng/mL) 1,25(OH)D2 (ng/mL)
          Sepsis Control Sepsis Control
Jeng 2009 [15] Cross-sectional Subjects in ICU with and without sepsis, and healthy controls between 1999 and 2006 54.0 (17.1) ACCP and SCCM consensus panel in 2001 Insufficiency (<30) ELISA Total 70 Sufficiency 9 Insufficiency 61 During hospitalization 16.0 (8.5) 16.2 (7.2) -
Muller 2000 [16] Cross-sectional Patients admitted to MICU of the Basel University Hospitals 57 (15) Systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by infection Subnormal (<20) 25(OH)D, Radioimmunoassay; 1,25(OH)D2, Scintillation proximity assay Total 101 First 24 h, day 2, day of discharge 6.3 (5.2) 8.8 (7.7) 27.7 (23.5) 32.4 (15)
Su 2013 [17] Cross-sectional Patients admitted to ICU in Army Hospital in 2011 57 (20) 2001 International Sepsis Definition Conference Deficiency (<20) Sufficiency (≥30) High performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry Total 156 Within 24 h of ICU admission 0.91 (0.24)a 0.97 (0.22)a -
Braun 2012 [18] Retrospective cohort Patients aged ≥18 years who were admitted to BWH and MGH between 1997 and 2009 63.0 (17.2) ICD-9-CM codes: 038.0–038.9, 790.7, 117.9, 112.5, 112.81, 995.92, and 785.52 Deficiency (≤15) Insufficiency (16–29) Sufficiency (≥30) - Total 1,325 Deficiency 668 Insufficiency 472 Sufficiency 185 7 days before and after critical care initiation 18.2 (13.7) -
Braun 2011[19] Retrospective cohort Patients aged ≥18 years who were admitted to BWH and MGH between 1997 and 2009 64.9 (16.6) ICD-9 codes 038.0–038.9, 020.0, 790.7, 117.9, 112.5, 112.81 Deficiency (≤15) Insufficiency (16–29) Sufficiency (≥30) - Total 2,399 Deficiency 637 Insufficiency 918 Sufficiency 844 7-365 days before admission 26.4 (15.2) -
Flynn 2012 [20] Prospective cohort study Participants aged ≥18 years who were admitted to ICU ≥48 h for between 2010 -2011 56 (20) - Deficiency (<20) Sufficiency (≥20) Normal (30-100) - Total 66 Deficiency 49 Sufficiency 17 On admission and every 7 days during hospitalization - -
Jovanovich 2014 [21] Retrospective cohort Hospitalized participants from hospitals and clinics from 2008-2010 60 (17) ICD-9 codes 995.91, 995.92 Deficiency (<15) Insufficiency (15–30) Sufficiency (>30) Radioimmunoassay Total 132 Deficiency 74 Insufficiency 193 Sufficiency 252 3-15 months before admission 70.1 (62.2-79.6) 79.3 (71.1-88.1) -
Moromizato 2013 [22] Retrospective cohort Patients aged ≥18 years who were admitted to BWH and MGH between 1998 and 2011 65.9 (16.1) Presence of any of the following ICD-9-CM codes: 038.0–038.9, 020.0, 790.7, 117.9, 112.5, or 112.81 Deficiency (≤15) Insufficiency (15–30) Sufficiency (≥30) Chemiluminescence assay, radioimmunoassay, or mass spectroscopy Total 3,386 Deficiency 566 Insufficiency 1,305 Sufficiency 1,515 7-365 days before admission 29.4 (15.5) -
Quraishi 2013 [23] Retrospective cohort Patients aged ≥18 years who were admitted to BWH and MGH between 1993 and 2011 61 (18) Hospital-acquired bloodstream infection Deficiency (<20) Chemiluminescence assay, radioimmunoassay, or mass spectroscopy Total 2,135 7-365 days before admission 25 (17) -
Lange 2013 [24] Retrospective cohort Patients aged ≥18 years who were admitted to BWH and MGH between 1993 and 2010 61.2 (17.6) Community-acquired bloodstream infection Deficiency (≤15) Insufficiency (15–30) Sufficiency (≥30) Chemiluminescence assay, radioimmunoassay, or mass spectroscopy Total 23,603 Deficiency 5,241 Insufficiency 8,679 Sufficiency 9,683 7-365 days before admission 27.9 (15.1) -
  1. Data are presented as mean (S.D.) or median (interquartile range)
  2. aData in Su et al. are presented in logarithms of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels
  3. ACCP, American College of Chest Physicians; BWH, Brigham and Women’s Hospital; MGH, Massachusetts General Hospital; SCCM, Society of Critical Care Medicine; MICU, medical intensive care unit; ICU, intensive care unit; 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 1,25(OH)D2, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D