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Table 2 Comparison of rule of 3 and exact binomial estimates of risk

From: Incidence of epidural haematoma and neurological injury in cardiovascular patients with epidural analgesia/anaesthesia: systematic review and meta-analysis

  Number of Lower 95% of risk
Outcome Events Patients rule of 3 Exact CI
Epidural haematoma     
Cardiac 0 4971 1 in 1,700 1 in 1,350
Thoracic 0 4108 1 in 1,400 1 in 1,100
Vacular 0 5026 1 in 1,700 1 in 1,350
Combined 0 14105 1 in 4,700 1 in 3,800
Permanent neurological injury     
Combined 0 13827 1 in 4,600 1 in 3,750